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WATER 

RESOURCES 

DEVELOPMENT 
IM LOUISIhMh 



& .. 



14 ' J 



The Ubiwy of the 



FEB 17 197! 

University ot (dtsi^is 
at Urbana-Cr 



«** ##«MiAfii 



JY THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
K-LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY DIVISION 
VICKSBURG. MISSISSIPPI 



ABBREVIATED ORGANIZATION CHART 



BOARDS 




ASST CHIEF 
OF ENGINEERS 




BOARD OF ENGINEERS 
FOR RIVER AND HARBORS 






COASTAL ENGINEERING 
RESEARCH BOARD 





DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 



DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
SECRETARY OF THE ARMY 



U.S ARMY ENGINEER DIVISIONS" 



LOWER MIDDLE EAST MISSOURI 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

VALLEY 

DISTRICT OFFICES 



MILITARY DISTRICT ^ 

OF WASHINGTON I 

CIVILIAN PERSONNEL I 
DIRECTORATE 



■ VICKSBURG 

The Chtel ol Engineers 'eports direclly lc !he 
Secretary ol Army on civil works mailers. 
"District olhces are listed only lor Ihose Divisions having 
areas ol responsibility in Louisiana 



DISTRICT OFFICES 



MOBILE 

— SAVANNAH 

— WILMINGTON 



DISTRICT OFFICES 



■ ALDUQUERQIJI 

■ FORT WORTH 

■ GALVESTON 
• LITTLE ROCK 



U. S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS 
DIVISIONS AND DISTRICTS for CIVIL WORKS ACTIVITIES 



NORTH PACIFIC 



LADELPHIA 

^/ NORTH 
ATLANTIC 

NORFOLK 




LOS 

ANGEL 



SOUTH PACIFIC 

SOUTH WE 



The Alaska District Headquarters, 
Anchorage, Alaska, is included in 
the North Pacific Division. 



The State of Hawaii and Islands in 
the Pacific are included in Honolulu 
District, Pacific Ocean Division, with 
Headquarters at Honolulu, Hawaii. 



The Territory of Puerto Rico and 
adjacent Islands is included in 
Jacksonville District, South 
Atlantic Division. 



SOUTH ATLANTIC 



DISTRICT BOUNDARIES 

■ DIVISION HEADQUARTERS 
• DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS 
A DIVISION AND DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS 



TO OUR READERS: 



Throughout history, water has played a dominant role in shaping 
the destinies of nations and entire civilizations. The early settlement 
and development of our country occurred along our coasts and water 
courses. The management of our land and water resources was the 
catalyst which enabled us to progress from a basically rural and 
agrarian economy to the urban and industrialized nation we are today. 

Since the General Survey Act of 1824, the US Army Corps of 
Engineers has played a vital role in the development and 
management of our national water resources. At the direction of 
Presidents and with Congressional authorization and funding, the 
Corps of Engineers has planned and executed major national programs 
for navigation, flood control, water supply, hydroelectric power, 
recreation and water conservation which have been responsive to the 
changing needs and demands of the American people for 152 years. 
These programs have contributed significantly to the economic growth 
of our country and to the well-being of the American people. 

Today, the activities of the Corps of Engineers in water resources 
management, under the direction of the Executive and Legislative 
branches of the Federal government, continue to support national goals 
and objectives. These include conservation of our water resources, 
protection of our wetlands, non- structural solutions to flood-damage 
control problems, total water management in metropolitan areas, 
flood plain management, and the preservation and enhancement of the 
quality of our environment for future generations. 

This booklet describes the past, current, and proposed activities 
of the Corps of Engineers in your state. I trust that you will find 
it informative, interesting, and useful. 




Lieutenant General, USA 
Chief of Engineers 




Within the boundaries of the State of Louisiana, 
five Districts are responsible for projects and activities 
of the Corps of Engineers as described in this 
pamphlet. Their geographic boundaries are shown on 
the map, page hi. Jurisdiction over District activities 
is the responsibility of the Division offices. The 
Mississippi River Commission exercises special 
jurisdiction over improvements for navigation on the 
Mississippi River and flood control both on this river 
and within its alluvial valley. Further information on 
particular projects and activities discussed herein may EL* 

be obtained by addressing the appropriate office 
listed below. 



President, 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION 

P. O. Box 80, Vicksburg, Miss. 39180 



Division Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer Division, SOUTH ATLANTIC 
510 Title Building, 30 Pry or Street, S. W. 
Atlanta, Ga. 30303 

District Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer District, Mobile 

P. O. Box 2288, Mobile, Ala. 36628 



COVER PHOTOGRAP H 

The cover photograph was taken by C. R. Brownell, 
M.D., Mayor of Morgan City, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. 



District Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer District, New Orleans 

P. O. Box 60267, New Orleans, La. 70160 pi |j 



District Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer District, Vicksburg 

P. O. Box 60, Vicksburg, Miss. 39180 CS 

Division Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer Division, SOUTHWESTERN 

1114 Commerce Street, Dallas, Tex. 75202 



< 






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o 

uj o 

Division Engineer, U. S. Army Engineer Division, >^ ■* 

LOWER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY ^^ H 

P. O. Box 80, Vicksburg, Miss. 39180 \\ f ^A 

CO O 



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District Engineer 

U. S. Army Engineer District, Fort Worth C^v 

P. O. Box 1600, Fort Worth, Tex. 76101 I I 1 

District Engineer ^y * 

U. S. Army Engineer District, Galveston C^} 

P. O. Box 1229, Galveston, Tex. 77551 






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M E X 1 C O 



CONGRESSIONAL AND U.S. ARMY ENGINEER 
DISTRICTS OF LOUISIANA 



in 



FOREWORD 



This pamphlet provides current information on 
the scope and progress of water resources 
development within the State of Louisiana by the 
United States Army Corps of Engineers and the 
Mississippi River Commission. The Introduction 
describes briefly the Corps' and Commission's civil 
functions, and their roles in carrying out the Civil 
Works Program for water resources development. 
Information is given on the status of various projects 
authorized for construction by the Congress, and 
survey investigations under way are described. 

In arranging the material presented in the 
pamphlet, the State has, for ease of reference, been 
divided into twelve sections as shown on the index 
map located on the back cover. Expanded maps for 
each section are included at the beginning of the 
textual material for the section involved. 

The twelve sections of the State, as defined for 
this pamphlet, are: 

1. The Mississippi River Basin, which includes 
the area between the Mississippi's banks and/or 
main-line levees, plus the watersheds of those east 
bank tributaries between Baton Rouge and the 
east-west Louisiana-Mississippi State line. 

2. The Atchafalaya Basin generally comprises 
the area between the East and West Atchafalaya Basin 
protection levees, which extend from the latitude of 
the town of Simmesport to the Gulf of Mexico. 

3. The Ouachita Basin, which includes the 
tributary area of the Ouachita River in Louisiana. 

4. The Tensas River Basin, which includes the 
tributary area of the Tensas River in Louisiana. 

5. The Red River Basin, which includes the 
tributary area of the Red River down to the vicinity 
of Alexandria. 




IV 




PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 




DREDGING MAINTAINS NAVIGABLE DEPTHS 



6. The Pearl River Basin, which includes the 
tributary area of Pearl River in Louisiana. 

7. The Lake Pontchartrain Basin, which 
generally includes the drainage area of Lake 
Pontchartrain in Louisiana. 

8. The Mississippi River Delta Area to the 
East Atchafalaya Basin protection levee, which 
includes the coastal area between Morgan City and 
the Louisiana-Mississippi State line. 

9. Vermilion River and Bayou Teche Basins, 
which include the tributary area of Vermilion River 
and Bayou Teche. 

10. The Mermentau River Basin, which 
includes the tributary area of Mermentau River. 

11. The Calcasieu River Basin, which includes 
the tributary area of Calcasieu River. 

1 2. The Sabine River Basin, which includes the 
tributary area of Sabine River in Louisiana. 

Projects that traverse several basins are described 
in the text under the heading "Coastal wide projects." 

Because the Civil Works activities of the Corps 
of Engineers are organized by river basins rather than 
State boundaries, the work in Louisiana comes within 
the jurisdiction of more than one Division and 
District. Boundaries of the various Districts and 
Divisions involved are identified on the map located 
on page iii. Additional information on specific water 
resources development projects, and on the 
responsibilities of the United States Army Corps of 
Engineers and the Mississippi River Commission may 
be obtained from the offices listed on page ii. 



CONTENTS 



Page 



FOREWORD iv 

LIST OF GRAPHS, MAPS, SCHEMATICS, 

AND ILLUSTRATIONS viii 

INTRODUCTION x 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN 3 

Mississippi River and Tributaries, 

Alluvial Valley 3 

Mississippi River 22 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 24 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 24 

ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN .... 29 

Introduction 29 

Projects 29 

MR&T Projects 29 

Lower Atchafalaya River Basin 

Projects 44 

Flood Insurance Studies 45 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 46 

OUACHITA RIVER BASIN 49 

Introduction 49 

Projects 49 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 52 

Flood Insurance Studies 52 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 52 

TENSAS RIVER BASIN 55 

Introduction 55 

Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and Tributaries, 

Headwater Area 55 

Projects 55 

Small Projects 56 

Flood Plain Information Reports . 57 

Flood Insurance Studies .... 57 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . 57 

Red River Backwater Area 58 

Projects 58 

Flood Plain Information Reports . . 59 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 59 

RED RIVER BASIN 63 

Introduction 63 

Projects 63 

Small Projects 78 

Emergency Projects 78 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 79 

Flood Insurance Studies 81 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 81 

PEARL RIVER BASIN 85 

Introduction 85 



VI 



Page 




Projects 85 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 86 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way ... 86 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN ... 89 

Introduction 89 

Projects 89 

Small Projects 95 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 95 

Flood Insurance Studies 97 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 98 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA AREA TO 
THE EAST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN 

PROTECTION LEVEE 101 

Introduction 101 

Projects 101 

Small Projects 110 

Flood Insurance Studies 110 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . Ill 

VERMILION RIVER AND BAYOU 

TECHE BASINS 115 

Introduction 115 

Projects 115 

Small Projects 120 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 120 

Flood Insurance Studies 121 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 121 

MERMENTAU RIVER BASIN .... 125 

Introduction 125 

Projects 125 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 129 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 129 

CALCASIEU RIVER BASIN 133 

Introduction 133 

Projects 133 

Flood Plain Information Reports ... 136 

Flood Insurance Studies 137 

SABINE RIVER BASIN 141 

Introduction 141 

Projects 141 

Surveys Authorized or Under Way . . 142 

COASTALWIDE PROJECTS 145 

Introduction 145 

Projects 145 

Emergency Projects 151 

INDEX 153 



vn 



LIST OF GRAPHS, 
MAPS, SCHEMATICS, 
AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

GRAPHS 

Mississippi River Traffic, 1940-1975 . . 21 
Comparative Tonnages for Major 

Navigable Waterways (Atchafalaya 

River Basin) 42 

Comparative Tonnages for Major 

Navigable Waterways (Calcasieu 

River Basin) 135 

MAPS 

Congressional and U. S. Army Engineer 

Districts of Louisiana gfe iii 

Mississippi River Basin 'i).t 2 

Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi River . 5 
Mississippi River Flood Control Plan 

Below Old River 10 

Project Design Flood 11 

Atchafalaya River Basin 28 

Atchafalaya Basin 40 

Ouachita River Basin 48 

Tensas River Basin 54 

Red River Basin 62 

Pearl River Basin 84 

Lake Pontchartrain Basin 88 

Mississippi River Delta Area to the East 

Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee . 100 

Vermilion River and Bayou Teche Basins . 114 

Mermentau River Basin 124 

Calcasieu River Basin 132 

Sabine River Basin 140 

Major Navigable Waterways and Lock 

Tonnages 144 

Atchafalaya Basin Improvements ... 159 

Projects in Louisiana 161 




1 




vui 



Page 






SCHEMATICS 

Abbreviated Organization Chart .... Cover 
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Divisions 

and Districts for Civil Works Activities . Cover 
The Mechanism by Which Projects Are 

Conceived, Authorized, and 

Constructed xii 

Inland Freight Tonnage on the 

Mississippi River System and the 

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, 1974 . 20 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Artist's Conception of Lock and Dam 

No. 1--A Feature of the Red River 

Waterway Project 76 

Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity 

Hurricane Protection Project ... 93 

New Orleans to Venice Hurricane 

Protection Project 108 

Fresh Water Supply for the Teche- 

Vermilion Basins . 119 

Artist's Conception of New Vermilion 

Lock 120 




P'-Wv, 






IX 



INTRODUCTION 



CIVIL FUNCTIONS OF 

THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers acts as 
engineer consultant to Congress and most of the 
Corps water resources projects are developed by 
specific Congressional authorization. When local 
interests feel that a need exists for construction or 
improvement of a water resources project they 
petition their representative in Congress. The Senator 
or Congressman then requests the appropriate 
Congressional committee to direct the Corps of 
Engineers to investigate and furnish a 
recommendation in the matter under consideration. 

Comprehensive surveys of suggested projects are 
made to determine their economic and engineering 
feasibility and necessity. In making these surveys the 
Corps of Engineers cooperates fully with all other 
Federal agencies concerned, as well as with State and 
local authorities. 

In the initial stages of investigation public 
meetings are held to advise on the nature and scope 
of the study, to open lines of communication 
between interested citizens and agencies, and to 
ascertain the needs, views, and desires of local citizens 
as to the extent and character of the improvements 
desired. Public meetings are also held during the 
course of each study in the plan formulation stage 
when all alternative solutions are reasonably known 
but before a plan has been tentatively selected. A 
major purpose of this meeting is to present the results 
of preliminary studies, including the advantages of 
the various alternatives, and to further develop public 
views and desires particularly as they relate to the 




various alternatives. Normally another public meeting 
is held in the late stages of the study after the 
solution has been tentatively selected and before the 
report is completed. The procedure for holding public 
meetings has been established to ensure, to the 
maximum practicable extent, that all viewpoints are 
considered since the desires of the people concerned 
are fundamental in making final recommendations to 
Congress. 

The report of the District Engineer is submitted 
through the Division Engineer to the Board of 
Engineers for Rivers and Harbors or the Mississippi 
River Commission and to the Chief of Engineers 
concurrently. The Board performs the review 
function except for works pertaining to the alluvial 
valley of the Mississippi River for which review is 
by the Commission. Public meetings may be held 
prior to final action by the Board or Commission 
when non-Federal interests request such meetings and 
the responsible reviewing authority concurs. Finally 
the report is transmitted to Congress. Action is then 
taken by the Committee on Public Works of the 
legislative body requesting the study. If authorized 
by Congress, the project still requires Congressional 
appropriations to become a reality. (See illustration 
on page xii.) 

In addition to the development of projects 
designed to meet specific localized problems, the 
Corps of Engineers undertakes planning for 
long-range coordinated development of the water 
resources of entire river basins. Basin-wide planning 
presents a challenge and many problems. Such studies 
are comprehensive in scope and have as their purpose 
the formulation of long-range plans for integrated and 
optimum development of water resources. Such 
investigations include consideration of (a) navigation; 
(b) flood control; (c) the environmental, social, and 
economic effects; (d) generation of hydroelectric 
power; (e) domestic and industrial water supply; (f) 
water quality management and improvement; (g) 
protection of fish and wildlife; (h) recreation; (i) 
preservation or enhancement of especially valuable or 
outstanding archeological, historical, biological, and 
geological resources and ecological systems; and (j) 
other potential uses of water which may enter into 
an overall plan. Federal and State agencies concerned 



contribute their specialized knowledge and skills to 
the investigation through active participation in the 
study. 

Before a project is recommended to Congress, 
it must survive a selection process based on 
consideration of all viable alternative measures for 
accomplishing the desired results. This ensures that 
efficient use is made of the natural resources 
involved, and that full advantage is taken of 
opportunities for restoring, preserving, and enhancing 
the quality of the environment. Finally, for any 
proposal recommended for Congressional 
authorization, economic benefits must exceed 
economic costs, and a specific determination must 
have been made that the project is engineeringly 
sound and will most effectively meet the needs to 
which it is responsive. 

• * • • • 

COMPREHENSIVE RrVER 
BASIN DEVELOPMENT 

The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with 
other Federal and local agencies, is engaged under 
the aegis of the Water Resources Council in the 
development of a series of long-range framework 
plans for development of the river basins in the 
Nation. Framework plans will inventory and specific 
studies will seek to determine the best program and 
projects to meet the Nation's needs for navigation 
improvements, flood control, major drainage, 
irrigation, hydroelectric power, water supply, water 
quality control, and fish and wildlife conservation 
and enhancement. These plans will serve as a basis 
upon which future projects will be proposed to 
Congress for authorization. 

• • • • • 

NAVIGATION 

The Corps of Engineers is responsible for the 
construction, maintenance, and operation of all 
Federal river and harbor projects. The Corps is also 
responsible for administering the Federal laws for the 



XI 



THE MECHANISM BY WHICH PROJECTS ARE 



LOCAiyURBAN/REGIONAL PROBLEMS jg^f PEOPLE ask 

SURFACE.. -"7^/-/5HJL/ ; ' / CONGRESSIONAL 

REPRESENTATIVES 

TO AUTHORIZE 

•Si iK u - s - ARMY CORPS 

*t?H Ibfff^vSf "W4^M^..: ' "W 0F ENGINEERS 

^y^^^f ^-J^W^^^^n-— - ASSISTANCE IN 




•<.Qj--,~ • * 



^ ^0 ^>>&.. PROBLEM 
«y-"- SOLVING 




CONGRESS 

AUTHORIZES 

STUDY 



SECRETARY OF 
THE ARMY 

DIRECTS 



CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 
DIVISION ENGINEER 
DISTRICT ENGINEER 
(DE) 



FOLLOWING APPROPRIATION 
OF FUNDS. DE CONDUCTS 
INITIAL PUBLIC MEETING: 




IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS 
LOCAL PROBLEMS I ALTERN- 
ATIVES EMPHASIZING 
NATIONAL ECONOMIC 
EFFICIENCY & ENVIRONMENTAL 
QUALITY 

4 



DE 

• INVESTIGATES ALL 
ALTERNATIVES 

• PERFORMS LIMITED 
-TECHNICAL FEASI- 
BILITY STUDIES 

-ENVIRONMENTAL 
ASSESSMENTS 

• PROPOSES MOST 
FEASIBLE 
SOLUTIONS 



FORMULATION 
STAGE PUBLIC 
MEETING 



DE 




DISCUSS MOST 

FEASIBLE 

ALTERNATIVES 



INVESTIGATES FORMULATION 
STAOE ALTERNATIVES 

> PERFORMS DETAILED 

- TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY 
STUDIES 

- ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESS- 
MENTS 

' SELECTS PLAN FOR 
PROPOSAL 

DISTRIBUTES DRAFT ENVIRON- 
MENTAL IMPACT STATE- 
MENT (EIS) (15 DAYS PRIOR 
TO LATE STAOE PUBLIC 
MEETING) 

> MAKES DRAFT FEASIBILITY 
REPORT AVAILABLE 



LATE STAGE 
PUBLIC MEETING 



W$$B- 




fll* 



DE 

FORWARDS TO STATES/ 
AGENCIES 



TENTATIVE PLAN 
PROPOSED AND 
DISCUSSED 




FEASIBILITY REPORT 
(FR) 



PUBLIC: 

RESPONDS TO 
DRAFT EIS AND 
DRAFT FR 



DE 




• REVIEWS COMMENTS TO DRAFT 
EISANDFR 

• PREPARES RECOMMENDED 

- REVISED DRAFT EIS 

- FINAL FR 

- STATEMENT OF 
FINDING (SOF) 

FORWARDS TO 





• REVIEWS 

• MODIFIES AS APPRO- 
PRIATE 

- FINAL FR 

- REVISED DRAFT EIS 

• INDORSES SOF 

• ISSUES PUBLIC NOTICE 



REQUESTING PUBLIC 
VIEWS BE SENT TO 
BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR 
RIVERS AND HARBORS 
(BERH) 
• FORWARDS RECOMMENDA- 
TIONS TO BERH 



II 



CONCEIVED, AUTHORIZED AND CONSTRUCTED 



BERH 

CONSIDERS VIEWS OF 

- PUBLIC 

- STATES 

- AGENCIES 
REVIEWS AND PROVIDES 
RECOMMENDATIONS 

- REVISED DRAFT EIS 

- FINAL FR 
TRANSMITS TO CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 




13 




REVIEWS BOARD REPORT 
PREPARES HIS DRAFT RECOMMEN- 
DATIONS 

DISTRIBUTES FOR OUTSIDE 
REVIEW 

- REVISED DRAFT EIS (PUBLIC, 
STATES, FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS) 
(45-DAY REVIEW PERIOD) 

- FR (GOVERNORS, FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS) 
(90-DAY REVIEW PERIOD) | 4 



CHIEF 

• REVIEWS RECEIVED 
COMMENTS 

• MODIFIES REPORT 
AS APPROPRIATE 

• PREPARES FINAL EIS 



CHIEF 

• FORWARDS RECOMMEN- 
DATIONS TO SECRETARY 
OF THE ARMY FOR 
CONSIDERATION 

-FINAL REPORT 
-FINAL EIS 
-SOF 



SECRETARY OF THE ARMY 




16 



• REVIEWS 

• COORDINATES WITH 0M6 

• PREPARES HIS RECOMMENDATIONS 

• FORWARDS 

-FINAL EIS, SOF (CEQ, PUBLIC) 
- FINAL FR, FINAL EIS, SOF 
(CONGRESS) 



PROJECT 
AUTHORI ZATION 

• HOLDS 
HEARINGS 

• INCLUDES IN 
WATER RESOURCES 
DEVELOPMENT 
BILL OR OTHER LEGISLATION 



PRESIDENT 
SIGNS 




OMB 

• REVIEWS CORPS BUDGET 

• SUBMITS TO CONGRESS 





PROJECT FUNDING 

• CONGRESS INCLUDES IN 
APPROPRIATIONS BILL 

• PRESIDENT SIGNS 




LOCAL INTERESTS 
GUARANTEE TO FULFILL 
OBLIGATIONS REQUIRED 
BY LAW (C.g M REAL ESTATE, 
COST SHARING, MAINTENANCE, 
OPERATION. FLOOD ZONING) 




DE 

• FORMULATES PRE-CONSTRUCTION 
PLANNING GENERAL DESIGN 
MEMORANDA (GDM) 
-UPDATES EIS AS REQUIRED 
- ISSUES PUBLIC NOTICE AND 

CONDUCTS AT LEAST ONE 
PUBLIC MEETING 

• OBTAINS ADDITIONAL CONGRESSIONAL 
AUTHORIZATION AS APPROPRIATE 

• INITIATES AND COMPLETES CONSTRUCTION 

• OPERATES AND MAINTAINS 




preservation and protection of the navigable waters 
of the United States. These laws include alteration 
or removal of obstructive bridges; removal of sunken 
vessels or other obstructions endangering navigation; 
and establishing anchorage grounds, special anchorage 
areas, danger zones, dumping grounds, restricted 
areas, fishing areas, and harbor lines. The Corps of 
Engineers also compiles annual statistics on 
commercial cargoes. These data are highly important 
in determining the need for and justification of the 
improvement and maintenance of rivers and harbors 
for commerce and navigation. They are also of value 
to commercial and shipping concerns, various Federal 
and local agencies, and others interested in 
transportation. 

The objectives of navigation improvements 
include the following: (a) to assist in the 
development, conduct, safety, and efficiency of 
waterbome commerce— interstate as well as foreign; 
(b) to meet the needs of recreational boating; (c) to 
promote the production and harvest of seafood; (d) 
to enhance environmental quality; (e) to encourage 
the expansion of existing and the development of 
new industrial and agricultural production; (f) to 
remove regional and sectional handicaps due to poor 
accessibility; (g) to enhance fish and wildlife 
resources; and (h) to enhance social well-being. 

• • • • • 



FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION 

The Federal interest in flood damage reduction 
began in the alluvial valley of the Mississippi River 
in the 19th century when the interrelationship of 
flood control and navigation became apparent. The 
impact of disastrous floods affecting wide areas 
caused the Federal interest in flood damage reduction 
to be extended in 1936 to the entire country. It was 
recognized that the Federal Government should 
participate in the solution of problems affecting the 
public interest when these problems are too large or 
complex to be handled by State or local 
organizations. 



The purpose of flood control works is to 
regulate flood flows and thus prevent flood damage. 
The largest single project is that for flood protection 
of the alluvial valley of the Mississippi River below 
Cape Girardeau, Missouri. This area is under the 
jurisdiction of the President, Mississippi River 
Commission. Although the Commission was created 
by an Act of Congress in June 1 879, it was not until 
after the disastrous flood of 1927 that it began to 
play a vital role in flood control. The Flood Control 
Act of 1928, and subsequent amendments, establishes 
the authority and defines the responsibility of the 
Commission in the alluvial valley. 

In addition, the Flood Control Act of 1944 
provides that "flood control" shall include major 
drainage of land. Both flood control and drainage are 
accomplished with reservoirs or local protection 
works, or with combinations of both. 

Reservoirs constructed for flood control storage 
often include additional storage capacity for 
multipurpose uses, such as for the conservation of 
water for municipal and industrial use, navigation, 
irrigation, development of hydroelectric power, 
conservation of fish and wildlife, and recreation. 

Local protection works are turned over to 
non-Federal authorities for maintenance, as are small 
reservoirs which have only localized effects. Other 
reservoirs are operated and maintained by the Corps 
of Engineers. 

The Chief of Engineers, through the Secretary 
of the Army, is authorized to provide information 
to other Federal agencies, States, and local 
communities, to aid them in planning use and 
regulation of flood plain areas. These services were 
authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1960 and 
are available upon request (see page xix "Flood 
Plain Management Services"). 

• • • • • 
HURRICANE PROTECTION 



Hurricanes have been the cause of catastrophic 
loss of life and property along the Atlantic and Gulf 



xiv 



coasts. In some cases tidal flooding can be prevented 
or reduced by protective structures, including dams 
and barriers in estuaries, with openings for navigation. 
Other measures include raising dunes and 
constructing dikes, walls, and breakwaters. There are 
also places where increasing the height of natural 
beaches affords effective protection. 

Under the authorization contained in Public 
Law 71, 84th Congress, 1st Session, approved June 
1955, the Corps of Engineers is conducting general 
investigations of the eastern and southern seaboards 
of the United States in order to identify problem 
areas and to determine the feasibility of protection. 
Works found to be justified are recommended to 
Congress for authorization and subsequent 
construction. 

• • • • • 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The need for evaluation of environmental effects 
and values is a project purpose in all the Corps' 
planning efforts. The basis for this is the National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL 91-190) 
which declared: 

A continuing policy of the Federal 
Government... to use all practical means 
and measures... to foster and promote the 
general welfare, to create conditions 
under which man and nature can exist in 
productive harmony and fulfill the social, 
economic and other requirements of 
present and future generations of 
Americans. 

As a result of this Act, all Federal agencies, 
including the Corps of Engineers, are required to 
evaluate thoroughly all environmental effects of any 
contemplated action. Public review of such findings 
is also required. Section 102 of the Act requires 
preparation of a detailed environmental impact 
statement (EIS) for every report recommending 
Federal action significantly affecting the quality of 
the human environment. Prior to making any detailed 
statement, the agency that is responsible for the 



preparation of the environmental impact statement 
is required to consult and obtain the views of any 
Federal agency which has jurisdiction by law or 
special expertise with respect to any environmental 
impact involved. 

• • • • • 

URBAN STUDIES 

In response to changing and newly emerging 
national development priorities which focus on the 
Nation's urban society and urban-oriented problems, 
the Corps of Engineers' role has been expanded to 
more fully address urban water and related land 
resources problems and provide for active 
participation in Urban Comprehensive Planning with 
those charged locally with urban planning 
responsibilities. The objective of the Urban Studies 
Program is to develop, in conjunction with the public, 
a range of alternative plans which not only offer a 
realistic prospect for solving specific urban water 
resources problems, but, equally important, also have 
the potential to serve as a catalyst for solving other 
related urban problems. In satisfying this objective, 
urban water resources planning must be consistent 
with the national objectives regarding national and 
regional economic development, and the quality of 
the environment. 

The established criteria for the development of 
such plans require that each plan be formulated to: 
address the specified water resources 
problems, issues, and concerns of the 
regional publics within the study area 

be responsive to expressed desires and 
preferences 

be flexible to accommodate changing 
economic, social, and environmental 
patterns and changing technologies 

integrate with and be complementary to 
other urban development and management 
programs 

be fully coordinated with affected public 
agencies at all levels 

develop through an orderly structure an 
open planning process 



xv 



• be implementable with respect to financial 
and institutional capabilities and public 
consensus 

• where appropriate, be certifiable by 
applicable State and Federal agencies 

The specific kinds of problems which will 
receive attention by the Corps of Engineers under 
this program include, but are not necessarily limited 
to the following: urban flood control and flood plain 
management; municipal and industrial water supply; 
wastewater management; bank and channel 
stabilization; lake, ocean, and estuarine restoration 
and protection; recreation management and 
development at Civil Works projects; and regional 
harbor and waterway development. 

• • • • • 
HYDROELECTRIC POWER 

Power development in multiple-purpose projects 
under the jurisdiction of the Chief of Engineers is 
collateral to the major objectives of flood control and 
navigation. In a series of laws and resolutions dating 
back to the River and Harbor Act of 1909, Congress 
has directed the Corps of Engineers to give 
consideration in its reports to various water uses, 
including hydroelectric power. Provisions for 
hydroelectric power are thus a part of proper 
comprehensive planning for water resource 
development. 

As a result of various plans and 
recommendations, Congress has authorized many 
multiple-use projects that involve hydropower 
development. In some cases, projects primarily for 
power development have been authorized when these 
projects were a part of recommended basin plans. The 
cost of the power projects is reimbursed by revenues 
from sale of the power. The Southwestern Power 
Administration, an agency of the Department of 
Interior, markets the power. 

• • • • • 
WATER SUPPLY 

Water supply is of vital interest to the national 



economy and security, and full attention is given to 
this subject in the planning of river basin works. 
Under Section 6 of the Flood Control Act of 1944, 
the Secretary of the Army is authorized to make 
contracts with States, municipalities, private 
concerns, or individuals for domestic and industrial 
uses of surplus water which may be available at Corps 
of Engineers projects. The Water Supply Act of 1958, 
as amended, makes further provision for water supply 
storage in Federal navigation, flood control, 
irrigation, or multiple-purpose projects. The extent 
of State and local participation and cost sharing in 
all new projects or modifications is set forth in 
Section 301 of the 1958 Act. 

• • • • • 

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 

Under Public Law 87-88, 87th Congress, the 
Corps of Engineers may, in planning reservoir 
projects, consider the inclusion of storage for 
regulation of streamflow to control water quality, but 
not as a substitute for sewage treatment. Cost of such 
storage may be all Federal if the benefit is sufficiently 
widespread. 

• • • • • 
BEACH EROSION CONTROL 

Beach erosion control is concerned with the 
restoration and preservation of eroded shores. The 
development of a plan for protection of non-Federal 
properties is accomplished by cooperative effort 
between the United States and an appropriate State 
or local element. The cost of the study is borne by 
the Federal Government. 

The Federal contribution toward construction 
of remedial shore protection works, authorized as a 
result of the study, is limited by law to a maximum 
of one-half of the construction cost except in special 
circumstances. The remedial work may include 
periodic beach nourishment with sand fill at suitable 
intervals. Maintenance of the restored beach is a 
non-Federal responsibility. 

• • • • • 



xvi 



REMOVING WATERHYACINTH AND 
AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL 



The Chief of Engineers is authorized by Section 
302 of the River and Harbor Act of 1965 to provide 
for control and progressive eradication of certain 
obnoxious aquatic plant growths. Local interests are 
required to pay 30 percent of the cost and to hold 
and save the Federal Government free from claims 
that may occur as a result of these operations. 

• • • • • 

FISH AND WILDLIFE 
CONSERVATION 

The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958 
(Public Law 624, 85th Congress) permits the Corps 
of Engineers to include facilities to offset damages 
to fish and wildlife which may occur as a result of 
development of an authorized project. 

• * • • • 

RECREATION 

Facilities for picnicking, swimming, boating, 
fishing, camping, and sight-seeing are included in 
projects where appropriate. In developing plans for 
recreational facilities the cooperation of the State or 
other concerned public bodies is required under terms 
of the Federal Water Projects Recreation Act of 1965 
(Public Law 89-72). 

• • • • • 

PERMIT PROGRAM 

The Corps of Engineers exercises regulatory 
authority in navigable waters of the United States 
primarily under the River and Harbor Act of 1899 
and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. 
Permits issued by the Corps of Engineers are required 
for work or structures in navigable waters of the 
United States and for the discharge of dredged 
material or fill into navigable waters, or the 



transportation of dredged material for the purpose 
of dumping into ocean waters. Structures such as 
piers, wharfs, and docks and activities such as channel 
excavation, placement of riprap, groins, buoys, moor- 
ing devices, cables, pipes, and the like require permits. 

The Corps of Engineers revised its dredge and 
fill regulations on 25 July 1975 to include nontidal 
wetlands and a variety of "navigable waters." 
Implementation of this expanded authority has been 
phased over a 2-year period. In Phase I, which began 
on 25 July 1975, only coastal wetlands contiguous 
or adjacent to coastal waters and freshwater wetlands 
contiguous or adjacent to inland navigable waters of 
the United States were regulated by the Corps. In 
Phase II, freshwater wetlands contiguous or adjacent 
to primary tributaries were added to the Corps' 
jurisdiction on 1 September 1976. In Phase III, 
planned for implementation on 1 July 1977 and 
based upon water quality guidelines, any navigable 
water in which activity will have a significant impact 
upon the environment will be regulated. 

The Corps of Engineers evaluates each permit 
application to determine the benefits which 
reasonably may be expected from the proposal. Such 
benefits are then balanced against reasonably 
foreseeable detriments. In applying this process, all 
factors which may be relevant to the proposal are 
considered. Among the factors considered in 
evaluating permit application are conservation, 
economics, aesthetics, historic values, general 
environmental concerns, navigation, land-use 
classifications, fish and wildlife, recreation, flood 
damage prevention, water supply, water quality, and, 
in general, the needs and welfare of the people. 
Permits are issued when it is determined to be in 
the overall public interest. 

• • • • • 

SPECIAL AND CONTINUING 
AUTHORITIES 

Small Flood Control Projects 

(Section 205, Flood Control 
Act of 1948, as Amended) 

Small flood control projects not specifically 



xvu 



authorized by Congress may be constructed under 
authority given the Chief of Engineers. The Federal 
share in such projects may not exceed $2,000,000, 
except where the project protects an area that has 
been declared a major disaster area in the 5-year 
period immediately preceding the date the Chief of 
Engineers deems such work advisable. Then the 
Federal share may not exceed $3,000,000. The work 
must be a complete solution to the flood problem 
involved so as not to commit the United States to 
additional improvements to ensure effective 
operation. 

Small Water Resource 
Development Projects 

(Section 201, Flood Control 
Act of 1965) 

This special authority expedites the 
authorization of small projects by allowing them to 
be acted on by a resolution of the Committees on 
Public Works of the Senate and House of 
Representatives rather than the Congress as a whole. 
For such projects, the Corps is authorized to 
construct, operate, and maintain both single and 
multipurpose projects involving, but not limited to, 
navigation, flood control, and shore protection. The 
estimated Federal first cost of these projects must 
be less than $15,000,000. 

Small Navigation Projects 

(Section 107, 1960 River and 
Harbor Act, as Amended) 

This legislation authorizes the Corps of 
Engineers to construct small river and harbor 
improvement projects not specifically authorized by 
Congress. The Federal share in such projects may not 
exceed $2,000,000. These projects must be complete 
in themselves and not commit the United States to 
any additional improvement to ensure successful 
operation. Such projects are also subject to the same 
requirements of feasibility and economic justification 
as the larger projects which require specific 
authorization by Congress. 



Small Beach Erosion 
Control Projects 

(Section 103, River and Harbor 
Act of 1962, as Amended) 

Small beach restoration and protection projects 
not specifically authorized by Congress are 
constructed under this authority. The Federal share 
of the cost must not exceed $1,000,000 for a single 
project, and the project must not be dependent on 
additional improvements for success. 

Snagging and Clearing 

(Section 2, Flood Control Act of 
1937, as Amended by Section 208, 
1954 Flood Control Act) 

The Corps of Engineers is authorized, under this 
act, to spend up to $250,000 on any single tributary 
during any one fiscal year in the interest of flood 
control. This work includes removing of accumulated 
snags and other debris, and clearing and straightening 
of stream channels. 

Emergency Bank Protection 

(Section 14, Flood Control 
Act of 1946, as Amended) 

This act authorized the expenditure at the single 
locality, of up to $250,000 per year for repair, resto- 
ration, and modification of emergency streambank 
and shoreline protection to prevent damages to high- 
ways, bridge approaches, and other public works. 

Flood Fighting, Repair, 
and Rescue Work 

(Public Law 99, 84th Congress) 

This law authorizes the Corps of Engineers to 
engage in flood fighting and rescue operations, and 
to repair or restore any flood control work 
threatened or destroyed by flood. 



Snagging and Clearing 

(Section 3 of Public Law 14, 
River and Harbor Act of 1945) 

This Act authorizes emergency work by the 



xvin 



Corps of Engineers to clear or remove unreasonable 
obstructions from rivers, harbors, and other 
waterways in the interest of navigation and flood 
control. However, this authority has been used almost 
exclusively for navigation improvements. 

Natural Disaster Assistance 

(Public Law 288, 93rd Congress) 

Under this law, the Corps of Engineers is 
authorized to cooperate with the Federal Disaster 
Assistance Administration in providing assistance to 
State and local governments in dealing with natural 
disasters. Assistance includes performing emergency 
work essential for the preservation and protection of 
life and property, conducting damage survey 
investigations, repairing, restoring or replacing public 
road facilities, and providing technical and 
engineering services. This law supersedes and 
incorporates provisions of Public Law 606, 91st 
Congress, as amended. 

Project Deauthorization 

(Section 12 of Public Law 
93-251, Water Resources 
Development Act of 1974) 

This act establishes a procedure for 
deauthorization of projects which have been 
authorized for at least 8 years, have not received any 
Congressional appropriations within the last 8 years, 
and should be no longer authorized. The Secretary 
of the Army acting through the Chief of Engineers 
is required to annually provide Congress a list of 
eligible projects. Prior to the submission of the list 
to Congress, the Chief of Engineers shall obtain the 
views of interested Federal departments, agencies, 
and instrumentalities, the governors of affected 
States, and concerned members of Congress. 



conservation of the water and related resources of 
drainage basins located within the boundaries of that 
State, and to submit to Congress reports and 
recommendations with respect to appropriate Federal 
participation in carrying out such plans. The Federal 
share in such plans is limited to $200,000 annually 
in any one State. 

Shoreline Erosion Control 
Demonstration Act of 1974 

(Section 54 of Public Law 
93-251, Water Resources 
Development Act of 1974) 

This act provides for the establishment of a 
national shoreline erosion control development and 
demonstration program at specified areas, and the 
establishment of a shoreline erosion advisory panel. 
The program is to be conducted for a period of 5 
fiscal years with total appropriations not to exceed 
$8,000,000. The program shall consist of planning, 
constructing, operating, evaluating, and demonstrat- 
ing prototype shoreline erosion control devices, both 
engineered and vegetative. The demonstration proj- 
ects shall emphasize the development of low-cost 
means to prevent and control shoreline erosion. 

Technical and Engineering Assistance 

(Section 55 of Public Law 93-251, 
Water Resources Development 
Act of 1974) 

This act authorizes the Corps of Engineers to 
provide technical and engineering assistance to 
non- Federal public interests in developing structural 
and nonstructural methods of preventing damages 
attributable to shore and streambank erosion. 

FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES 



Comprehensive Planning Cooperation 

(Section 22 of Public Law 93-251, 
Water Resources Development Act 
of 1974) 

This act authorizes the Secretary of the Army, 
acting through the Chief of Engineers, to cooperate 
with any State in the preparation of comprehensive 
plans for the development, utilization, and 



The Secretary of the Army has been authorized 
by Section 206 of the Flood Control Act of 1960, 
Public Law 86-645, through the Chief of Engineers, 
to compile and disseminate certain information on 
floods and flood damages. This information is to 
include descriptions of areas subject to inundation 
by floods of various magnitudes and frequencies, 
general criteria for guidance in the use of flood plains, 



xix 



and to provide engineering advice to local interests 
for use in planning to reduce flood damages. 

Flood plain information studies are a readily 
available source of information for Federal agencies, 
States, local governments, and citizens to use in 
planning and regulating the development of flood 
plains. Objectives of the studies include reduction of 
flood damages and hazards, preservation of adequate 
floodway channels, and protection of existing 
developments. Information to accomplish these 
objectives is also developed for all Corps of Engineers 
reports concerned with flood-damage reduction. 

Flood plain studies are made for specific 
localities only upon the request of a State or 
responsible local governmental agency and after 
approval by the Division Engineer. A typical report 
includes maps or mosaics, profiles, charts, tables, and 
a narrative describing the extent, depth, probability, 
and duration of flooding by floods of the past and 
those that may be expected in the future. 

Application by a local agency in Louisiana for 
a flood plain information study is made to the 
appropriate District Engineer of the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers through the Department of 
Transportation and Development, Office of Public 
Works of the State of Louisiana in Baton Rouge. The 
Department of Transportation and Development, 
Office of Public Works, coordinates applications from 
agencies in Louisiana. Both the District office of the 
Corps of Engineers and the Department of 
Transportation and Development, Office of Public 
Works, assist in preparation of applications for flood 
plain studies. Boundaries for Corps of Engineers 
Districts and addresses for various Corps of Engineers 
offices are shown on pages ii and iii. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDIES 

Prior to the authorization of a National Flood 
Insurance Program, the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development (HUD) concluded an agreement 
with the Corps of Engineers whereby the latter 
agency was authorized to conduct pilot studies in 
seven areas chosen nationwide. The purpose of the 
studies was to determine the feasibility of establishing 
a government-sponsored flood insurance program. 

Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 



1968 (Public Law 90-448) as amended by the Flood 
Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), 
the Secretary of HUD was authorized to establish and 
carry out a National Flood Insurance Program. Title 
XIII of the National Flood Disaster Act provides that 
the Secretary may make studies and investigations to 
establish the risk premium rates for flood insurance 
in communities and, in carrying out his responsibility, 
is authorized to use the services, on a reimbursable 
basis, of the Department of the Army, the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, the Department of Agriculture, 
the Department of Commerce and the Tennessee 
Valley Authority to the Maximum extent feasible. 

COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT 

Changing national priorities, evolving from 
increased State and local interest for management of 
the coastal zone, resulted in the Coastal Zone 
Management Act (CZM) of 1972 (Public Law 
92-583). This Act declared a national interest in the 
effective management, beneficial use, protection, and 
development of the coastal zone. It indicated that 
the primary responsibility for planning and regulation 
of land and water uses rests with the State and local 
governments. 

Although the Corps was not given a specific 
legislative assignment in the development of the State 
CZM plans, Section 307 c (1) of the Act requires 
that "...each Federal agency conducting or supporting 
activities directly affecting the coastal zone shall 
conduct or support those activities in a manner which 
is, to the maximum practicable extent, consistent 
with approved state management programs..." as 
such, the present Corps policy is as follows: 

• Civil Works activities undertaken 
subsequent to approval of a State's CZM plan will 
be consistent with that plan to the maximum extent 
practicable. 

• Permit applications for activities regulated 
by Corps authorities must include a certification that 
the action contemplated is consistent with the 
approved State CZM plan. 

• Technical assistance requested by the 
States to assist their implementation of the national 
policy for coastal zone management will be provided 
to the extent practicable. 



xx 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN 



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■■■■M 1 



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ARKANSAS 
[LOUISIANA 



Mississippi River Basin in Louisiana 
Mississippi River and Tributaries 
Project Area in Louisiana 




MEXICO 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN 

Mississippi River and Tributaries 
Alluvial Valley 



The Mississippi River has made important 
contributions to the physical and economic growth 
of the Nation. When confined within banks this great 
river is a valuable asset. Uncontrolled, it would be 
a tremendous liability. The Mississippi River and its 
tributaries drain an area of 1-1/4 million square miles 
in 31 States and two Canadian provinces. This area 
represents about 41 percent of the total land area 
of the United States, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. 

The only outlet for the vast amount of water 
collected from the third largest drainage basin in the 
world is through the Lower Mississippi River formed 
by the junction of the Ohio and Upper Mississippi 
Rivers at Cairo, Illinois. The problem, then, is to 
make best use of and protect against the water that 
drains through the Mississippi River Basin. 

Prior to authorization of the existing project, 
the largest flood of record on the Mississippi River 
occurred in 1927. Major floods occurring since then 
include those of 1929, 1932, 1935, 1937, 1945, 
1950, and 1973. 

Without man-made protection works about 
35,000 square miles in the alluvial valley would be 
flooded by the occurrence of the project flood, a 
projected flood which is somewhat larger than the 
largest flood of record and is used as a model in 
designing protective works. 

Except for backwater areas and floodways, the 
alluvial valley is a highly developed agricultural and 
industrial region. The agricultural development is 
widely dispersed. The major industrial developments 
are measured in billions of dollars, and are 
concentrated near the urban centers particularly 
along the river below Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 



After the disastrous flood of 1927, Congress 
authorized a comprehensive plan for flood control 
in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley by passage of 
the Flood Control Act of May 1928. This act has 
been modified many times, the latest modification 
being by the Water Resources Development Act of 
1976. 

The Mississippi River and Tributaries (MR&T) 
project provides for flood protection of the alluvial 
valley of the Mississippi River between the Head of 
Passes, Louisiana, and Cape Girardeau, Missouri. 
Because of the wide expanse covered by the project 
and the many problems involved, no single 
improvement could afford protection against all 
floods. 

The existing project contains a combination of 
features consisting of levees along the main stem of 
the river and its tributaries in the alluvial plain to 
confine the flood flow; reservoirs on the tributary 
streams to hold back peak flows; floodways to receive 
excess flow from the river; and channel improvement 
such as revetment, dikes, and dredging to increase 
channel capacity. There are other features consisting 
of control structures, cutoffs, pumping plants, 
floodwalls, and floodgates. 

Since 1927, floods from the Mississippi River 
within the State of Louisiana have been confined 
within levees without overtopping. However, high 
stages in the unprotected backwater areas continue 
to cause considerable damage. 

In addition to the flood control features, this 
project also provides for construction and 
maintenance of a navigable channel from Baton 
Rouge to Cairo. The Lower Mississippi, the main stem 




CONTROL OF MISSISSIPPI WATERS PROTECTS LIVES AND PROPERTY 



of a dependable navigation system of about 10,000 
miles of natural and man-made waterways with 
navigable depths of 6 feet or more, is of vital 
importance to our Nation's transportation system and 
is playing an increasingly important role in national 
defense. 

The Mississippi River Commission, under the 
direction of the Secretary of the Army and 
supervision of the Chief of Engineers, is responsible 
for accomplishment of work on this project. The 
Commission was created by an Act of Congress in 
1879. The total authorized cost of the project, 
including all modifications, is $5.7 billion, of which 
$2.3 billion has been spent to date. Recent cost of 
annual maintenance is $50 million. Accumulated 
benefits of the existing project from its inauguration 
in 1928 to date amount to more than $51.7 billion. 

The MR&T project is extensive in scope and 
involves a number of tributary basins. The features 
of the MR&T project located within the Louisiana 



portion of the Mississippi River Basin are discussed 
within this section. 

LEVEES-MAIN LINE 
(Mississippi River Commission) 

The levees within the Lower Mississippi River 
Valley are considered as one project. Obviously levees 
that protect any one area also influence the degree 
of protection afforded downstream areas. 

The main stem levee system consists of 2,203 
miles, of which 1,545 have been completed to grade 
and section. 

There are 1,608 miles of levees and floodwalls 
now authorized along the Mississippi River below 
Cape Girardeau, Missouri. 

Additional levees and structures included in the 
main stem levee system are those along the south 
bank of Arkansas River (85.4 miles); along the south 
bank of Red River (59.8 miles); and 449.2 miles in 



Cape Girardeau 

V BlWOS POIN 

WAPPAP£LLO\ JVEW MADRI 
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JAO_ 

ARK 




HEAD OF PASSES 



MEXICO 



ALLUVIAL VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 



STEAMBOATS ON THE MISSISSIPPI 








,i„ NATCHII 



i . ji 



NATCHEZ 




DELTA QUEEN 



the Atchafalaya River Basin. Graveled or 
hard-surfaced roads have been constructed on 1,702 
miles of the levee system. 

Below Baton Rouge, in the New Orleans District 
(NOD), about 134 miles of levee are protected against 
river wave wash by levee-slope pavement. Foreshore 
protection works extend along 93 miles of levee. 
Additional work is in progress consisting of 
enlargement of levee section, construction of riverside 
and landside berms, construction of wave-wash 
protection, provision of seepage control measures, 
and construction of concrete floodwalls in highly 
urbanized areas. 

On the west bank the levee line begins just south 
of Cape Girardeau, and except for gaps where 
tributaries join the Mississippi, extends unbroken to 
Venice, Louisiana, near the Gulf of Mexico. The 
longest continuous levee line in the MR&T project, 
and probably in the world, begins at high ground near 
Pine Bluff, Arkansas, follows the south bank of the 
Arkansas River to its mouth, and continues down the 
Mississippi River to its terminus in the vicinity of 
Venice, a distance of more than 650 miles. There 
exist Corps of Engineers navigation locks through this 
levee line at Old River, Port Allen, Harvey, Algiers, 
and a State-owned lock at Empire, Louisiana. There 
are additional openings at the Old River Low-Sill and 
Overbank Structures, and the Morganza Control 
Structure. 

The west bank levees were considered adequate 
prior to the flood of 1973. During the 1973 flood 
it became evident that portions of the levee were 
inadequate based on a new project flow line 
developed from data generated by the flood. It was 
determined that 172 miles of main-line levee, 
between the Arkansas-Louisiana State line and a 
point near Black Hawk, Louisiana, needed to be 
raised to the revised standards. Work was initiated 
in fiscal year 1974 to bring the levees up to the 
revised standards. Costs for the 172 miles of 
levee-raising work in Louisiana are estimated at 
$162.9 million. 

The east bank is, except for backwater areas, 
protected by levees alternating with high bluffs. 
Continuations of the main-line levees extend up the 
north bank of the Ohio River to high ground near 



Mound City, Illinois; the north bank of White River 
to Old Town Lake, Arkansas; and the south bank 
of Arkansas River to Pine Bluff. 

Levees authorized under provisions of 
Section 6, 1928 Act, include 129.4 miles of levee 
along the banks of the Mississippi River between Cape 
Girardeau and Rock Island, Illinois, and 306.2 miles 
along tributaries within the limits of the Mississippi 
River backwater. These include 20.7 miles along the 
Red River; and 68.5 miles on the east bank of the 
Ouachita River. Also see separate levee projects for 
Bawcomville (page 50), Harrisonburg to Little River 
(page 57), and Moncla to Lake Long (page 39). 

The main-line Mississippi River levee system in 
the State of Louisiana is 710 miles in length. 

CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT 
(Mississippi River Commission) 

Channel improvement in the interest of both 
navigation and protection of flood control works in 
the lower alluvial valley below Cairo is an integral 
part of the Mississippi River project. The project, 
authorized by the Flood Control Act of May 1928 
and subsequent amendments, provides for 
stabilization of the channel by means of revetment, 
dikes, and dredging. 

REVETMENT AND 
FORESHORE PROTECTION 

Bank stabilization is important to both flood 
control and navigation, and to protect existing 
industrial facilities located along the river below 
Cairo, Illinois. On the Mississippi River it is flexible 
in scope and application. 

The best means of protecting banks from 
erosion and caving is revetment, composed of 
articulated concrete mattress underwater and riprap 
above the waterline. Operative revetment in place 
between Cairo and Baton Rouge as of 30 June 1976 
extends over 600 miles of bank of which 44 miles 
are in Louisiana. Below Baton Rouge, an additional 
110 miles of operative revetment works are in place. 
The construction of 100 miles of foreshore 
protection is also authorized under this project. Nine 



PROTECTION 
AGAINST 

EROSION. 




REVETMENTS BEING MADE BY LINKING TOGETHER CONCRETE MATS 




REVETMENTS PROVIDE BANK PROTECTION IN CRITICAL AREAS 



miles of this work has been completed in Louisiana. 

DIKES AND DREDGING 

In the 725-mile reach of the Mississippi River 
between Cairo and Baton Rouge, a low-water 
navigation channel 9 feet deep and 300 feet wide 
is maintained by dredging and training works. 

This work includes channel contraction by 
dikes, realignment by dredging, and closure of 
secondary channels, as required. On 30 June 1976, 
there were 162 miles of operative dikes on the 
Mississippi River. 

In carrying out an authorized channel 
improvement program between Cairo and Baton 



Rouge, 16 cutoffs were developed between 1933 and 
1942. These, combined with chute channel 
development and alignment improvements, decreased 
channel length between these cities by about 170 
miles. However, current velocities increased the 
attack on the banks and the river began to regain 
its length. As a result, the net shortening between 
1933 and 1962 was 114 miles of the theoretical 
170-mile cutoff. 

OFF-MAIN-STEM 

FLOOD CONTROL 

(Mississippi River Commission) 

Supplementary improvements for local 



protection have been built in those portions of the 
lower alluvial valley located in the basins of St. 
Francis and Little Rivers in Missouri and Arkansas; 
at Cairo, Illinois, and vicinity; along east bank 
tributaries in western Kentucky and Tennessee; in the 
lower White and Arkansas River Basins in Arkansas; 
in the Tensas River Basin in Arkansas and Louisiana; 
in the Atchafalaya Basin in Louisiana; and in the 
Yazoo Basin in Mississippi. 

FLOODWAYS AND OUTLETS 
(Mississippi River Commission) 

Three major supplementary flood outlets are 
designed to pass one-half the project flood flows from 
the Mississippi River channel to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The Bonnet Carre Spillway and Floodway (below), 
located on the east bank about 33 river miles above 
Canal Street in New Orleans, is capable of passing 
a flow of 250,000 cubic feet per second into Lake 
Pontchartrain and thence to the Gulf. The Morganza 
Spillway and Floodway (page 12), located on the 
west bank about 50 river miles above Baton Rouge, 
is capable of passing a flow of 600,000 cubic feet 
per second into the Atchafalaya Floodway and 
thence to the Gulf. The West Atchafalaya Basin 
Floodway (page 13), located between the West 
Atchafalaya River levee and the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee, is capable of passing a flow 
of 250,000 cubic feet per second into the 
Atchafalaya Floodway and thence to the Gulf (see 
Project Design Flood diagram on page 11). 

BONNET CARRM 

SPILLWAY AND FLOODWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

Residents in the area consider Bonnet Carre 
Spillway in St. Charles Parish a pleasant place to 
picnic, camp, and crawfish. But the purpose for 
which it was built is of far greater importance. The 
spillway is an integral part of the comprehensive plan 
for flood control in the Mississippi Valley. It serves 
to ensure the safety of New Orleans and the 
downstream delta area during major floods on the 
Lower Mississippi. 



The project, which was completed in 1936 at 
a cost of $14,212,200, is designed to introduce 
floodwaters from the Mississippi to Lake 
Pontchartrain to prevent overtopping of levees at and 
below New Orleans. 

Situated between the Mississippi River and Lake 
Pontchartrain some 33 river miles above New Orleans, 
the project consists of a reinforced concrete control 
structure located in the riverbank, and guide levees 
extending about 5.7 miles from the river to the lake. 
These levees, averaging about 19 feet in height, form 
a floodway flaring from 7,700 feet in width at the 
river end to about 12,400 feet some 3.5 miles from 
the river, beyond which point the width is constant 
to the lake. 

The overflow weir is of reinforced concrete 
construction. The structure consists of 350 individual 
bays for controlling the flow. Each bay is 20 feet 
wide and is equipped with movable timber needles, 
8 by 11-1/2 inches in cross section. In 174 bays, the 
weir crest is at elevation 16 feet above mean sea level; 
in the remaining bays, it is 2 feet higher. The timber 
needles are set in place and removed by two operating 
cranes which ride on a service bridge crossing the 
control structure. 

The spillway and floodway have a design 
capacity of 250,000 cubic feet per second and are 
operated to prohibit the river stage on the Carrollton 
gage (located near river mile 104) from exceeding 
20 feet, a stage about 5 feet below levee grade. 

The spillway is crossed by the Yazoo and 
Mississippi Valley Railroad, the Kansas City Southern 
Railway, and the Illinois Central Railroad, all 
roadbeds of which are on timber trestles. U. S. 
Highway 61 (Airline Highway) and Interstate 
Highway 10 cross the spillway on reinforced concrete 
bridges. 

Revenue is realized through the lease of 
approximately 3,700 acres of project lands and 
mineral rights. Material deposited during operation of 
the spillway provides a convenient source of 
high-grade fill material which has been used 
extensively in highway and heavy construction 
projects in the surrounding area. This use has 
operated to preserve the flow capacity of the 
spillway. 



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150, 



MISSOURI RIVER 



100,000 



ST. LOUIS 



240,000 \ 



NEW MADRID FLOODWAY 



220,000^^^ 



ARKANS AS RIVER 



540,000 





550,000 / t il 

vir 



2,890,000 ft. 



2,710,000 



NOTE: DECREASE IN STREAM FLOW IS 
OCCASIONED BY CHANNEL AND 
VALLEY STORAGE. 



GREENVILLE 




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Local 



WEST 
ATCHAFALAYA 
FLOODWAY - 

250,000 



WAX LAKE 
OUTLET 

300,000 



2,720,000 % 

1 

620,000 
\ 1 680,0 00 [ 2,100,000 

If U"*— 600,000 




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55,000 



o NATCHEZ 



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MORGANZA 
FLOODWAY 



MORGAN CITY 
1,200,000 



BATON ROUGE 

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PROJECT DESIGN FLOOD 

58-AEN 

CUBIC FEET PER SECOND 

SEPT 1958 




i 



FISHING AT BONNET CARRE SPILLWAY 



Approximately 250,000 visitors annually enjoy 
the outdoor recreation opportunities offered by the 
spillway. However, attendance between 1973-1975 
was lower than usual due to the high water on the 
Mississippi River. Expanded use of the spillway's 
recreation capabilities is being planned at Federal and 
local levels. A master plan for development of the 
recreational potential of the spillway area has been 
prepared and is being reviewed. 

Two licenses have been granted for recreational 
development of each guide levee, one to the 
St. Charles Parish Police Jury and the other to the 
Pontchartrain Levee District. A two-lane concrete 
launch ramp and improvements to camping and 
picnicking facilities have been completed. Plans for 
additional facilities are proposed. 

The spillway was completed in 1936 and has 
served its intended function on five occasions-in 
1937, 1945, 1950, 1973, and 1975. It stands ready 
to do so again whenever the need arises. 

MORGANZA FLOODWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

Located on the west side of the Mississippi River 



some 35 miles northwest of Baton Rouge, the 
Morganza Floodway is capable of introducing excess 
floodwaters from the Mississippi River to the 
Atchafalaya Basin Floodway at a rate of 600,000 
cubic feet per second (4.5 million gallons per second). 
The structure was operated for the first and only time 
when a partial opening was made during the 1973 
flood to lower Mississippi River stages and relieve 
pressure on the Old River Low-Sill Control Structure. 

The floodway consists of a combined 
gated-control structure and high-level highway and 
railroad crossing on the west bank of the Mississippi 
River just above the town of Morganza; guide levees 
to confine the floodwaters within the Atchafalaya 
Basin Floodway about 20 miles to the south; 
high-level highway and railroad crossings over the 
floodway, and drainage alterations and 
improvements. 

Comprehensive easements for full use of the 
lands within the floodway have been acquired 
between the guide levees. Habitation within the 
floodway is not permitted, but use of the land for 
farming, removal of timber and minerals, and other 
purposes not in conflict with flood control is 
permitted with prior approval. 



12 



Large areas have been leased to private clubs or 
individuals for hunting and fishing. The land and 
water areas around the control structure are 
extensively used for fishing and picnicking. 

Descriptions of the various features comprising 
the floodway follow. 

Morganza Combined Control Structure. The 
structure consists of about 19,340 linear feet of levee, 
and a reinforced-concrete structure having 125 gated 
openings, each 28 feet 3 inches wide, separated by 
3-foot-wide piers. Each opening is equipped with a 
steel vertical-lift gate operated by a gantry crane. 
Bridges for the gantry crane, Louisiana Highway 1 
(old No. 30), and the joint track for the Kansas City 
Southern and Texas and Pacific Railways are 
supported by piers between the earth embankments 
flanking the control structure. The structure was 
completed in 1954 at a cost of $20,680,000. 

Morganza Floodway Levees. The levees consist 
of the upper and lower guide levees which, with the 
East Atchafalaya River levee, form a floodway 
averaging about 5 miles in width. The upper guide 
levee extends about 12 miles southwesterly from the 
combined control structure to the East Atchafalaya 
River levee about 2 miles upstream from Melville. 
This levee will protect more than 100 square miles 
of productive farmlands in Upper Pointe Coupee 
Parish from overflow during floodway operations. 
The lower guide levee extends about 19.4 miles in 
a southerly direction from the control structure to 
join the East Atchafalaya Basin protection levee at 
the latitude of Krotz Springs. 

Pointe Coupee Drainage Structure and Bayou 
Latenache. A drainage system for the Upper Pointe 
Coupee Parish area, which is protected by the upper 
guide levee, was provided with a drainage structure 
at the intersection of the levee and Bayou Latenache; 
and the bayou was enlarged from the drainage 
structure to U. S. Highway 190. The structure, 
located about 0.5 mile east of the Atchafalaya River, 
consists of a reinforced-concrete structure supported 
on untreated timber piles and contains two 
motor-operated steel lift gates each 10.5 feet wide 
and 15.0 feet high. This feature was completed in 
1942 at a cost of $310,000. Operation and 
maintenance are the responsibility of the U. S. 



Army Corps of Engineers. 

Inundation rights have been acquired on 
12,800 acres of land above the drainage structure for 
storage of runoff during the closure of the gates for 
operation of the Morganza Floodway. 

Additional drainage work has been authorized 
for the Upper Pointe Coupee area. Initially, 
improvements included the enlargement of Bayou 
Latenache, a Corps of Engineers responsibility, and 
construction of an interior drainage system of major 
laterals and on-farm drains by others. As a result of 
the 1973 flood, the project was restudied. The report 
recommended that a pumping plant be constructed 
in lieu of enlarging Bayou Latenache. The total 
estimated cost of the pumping station is $8,135,000. 

High-Level Crossings. A 3 9, 000- foot, single- 
track, high-level crossing for the Texas and Pacific 
Railway main line was constructed between 
McKneely and Red Cross. Consisting of two 
reinforced-concrete deck girder tresties 6,000 and 
10,000 feet in length and earth embankment 
sections, this feature was completed in 1950 at a cost 
of $6,500,000. 

A similar high-level crossing for the New 
Orleans, Texas, and Mexico Railway was completed 
in 1944 between Lottie and East Krotz Springs. It 
consists of 18,750 linear feet of trestle and 8,350 
linear feet of embankment. Cost was $3,300,000. 
This crossing will be used by other railroads during 
interruptions caused by operation of the West 
Atchafalaya Floodway (below). In 1945 a high-level 
crossing for U. S. Highway 190 was completed 
between Lottie and East Krotz Springs at a cost of 
$4,670,000. This crossing consists of 8,609 feet of 
paved embankment and 18,778 linear feet of 
reinforced-concrete trestle. 

The railway companies and the Louisiana State 
Highway Department are responsible for operation 
and maintenance of the railway and highway 
crossings, respectively. 

WEST ATCHAFALAYA FLOODWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

Under the project plan, it is estimated that this 
floodway, which has a designed capacity of 250,000 



13 



cubic feet per second, will be used on an average 
of once in 100 years for carrying floodwaters in 
excess of the combined capacities of the Atchafalaya 
and Mississippi Rivers and the Morganza Floodway. 
The floodwaters will enter the floodway by 
overtopping the levee at the head of the floodway 
and along the south bank of Bayou des Glaises. The 
floodway has not been operated to date. 

The floodway, about 6 miles in width, is located 
between the West Atchafalaya River levee and the 
West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee, and extends 
from Bayou des Glaises to the latitude of Krotz 
Springs, a distance of about 32 miles. Below this 
point, it joins the floodwaters from the Atchafalaya 
River and the Morganza Floodway in the Atchafalaya 
Basin Floodway. 

Perpetual flowage easements were acquired by 
the Government over all lands and improvements in 
the floodway down to the latitude of Krotz Springs. 
These easements provide for full use of the lands for 
flood control purposes. Owners retain the rights to 
farm, improve, and inhabit the lands, and to harvest 
timber and minerals. 

Railway and highway traffic is carried over the 
floodway on high-level crossings described below: 

New Orleans, Texas, and Mexico Railway. The 
high-level crossing between Krotz Springs and 
Courtableau provides means by which uninterrupted 
traffic can be maintained by the New Orleans, Texas, 
and Mexico Railroad; the Texas and Pacific Railway; 
the Missouri Pacific Railroad; and the Kansas City 
Southern Railway across the floodway during the 
floods requiring operation of the West Atchafalaya 
Floodway. The detoured traffic will regain its own 
route by use of the Opelousas-Ville Platte-Bunkie 
Railway connection, described below. The 
single-track, high-level crossing comprises 31,466 
linear feet of earth embankment and 7,500 linear feet 
of reinforced-concrete-ballaster deck-type trestle 
supported on piling. It was completed in September 
1961 at a cost of $6,547,000. The railroad companies 
are responsible for maintenance. 

Opelousas-Ville Platte-Bunkie Railway Con- 
nection. Located west of the West Atchafalaya 
Floodway between Opelousas and Bunkie, this 
connection was constructed in lieu of providing two 



additional high-level crossings over the West 
Atchafalaya Floodway for the Texas and Pacific and 
the Kansas City Southern Railways. The connection 
included construction of 16 miles of new single-track 
railroad between Opelousas and Ville Platte and the 
rehabilitation and strengthening of about 20 miles of 
single-track railroad between Ville Platte and Bunkie. 
Construction was completed in 1950 at a cost of 
$820,000. Maintenance is the responsibility of the 
railroad companies. 

U. S. Highway 190. The high-level crossing 
between Krotz Springs and Courtableau consists of 
an elevated 4-lane, twin-bridge highway, averaging 
about 29 feet above natural ground, comprising 
29,385 linear feet of earth embankment and 7,500 
linear feet of reinforced-concrete bridge supported by 
piling. During the operation of the floodway this 
crossing will provide an east-west highway route 
across the Atchafalaya Basin. Other usable routes 
include Interstate 10, about 15 miles to the south; 
U. S. Highway 90 through Morgan City, 60 miles to 
the south; and U. S. Highway 84 through Natchez, 
Mississippi, 74 miles to the north. Construction was 
started in 1956, and the crossing was opened to 
traffic in 1965. Cost was $8,385,900. The Louisiana 
Highway Department is responsible for maintenance. 

ATCHAFALAYA BASIN FLOODWAY 
(New Orleans District) 

The floodway is located between protection 
levees approximately 15 miles apart extending from 
the lower limits of the Morganza and West 
Atchafalaya Floodways at the latitude of Krotz 
Springs to Morgan City and through the Lower 
Atchafalaya River and Wax Lake Outlet to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The improvements necessary to this 
floodway are described as separate features. (See map 
in back of this pamphlet and Atchafalaya River Basin 
section, page 29.) 

OLD RIVER 

(New Orleans District) 

Studies showed that between 1965 and 1975 the 
Mississippi River could have changed its course to 



14 



that of the Old and Atchafalaya Rivers. If this had 
occurred, the cities of Baton Rouge and New Orleans 
and many lesser size communities would have been 
without sufficient quantities of fresh water to satisfy 
domestic needs during low-water periods. The vast 
industrial complex located from Baton Rouge to near 
the mouth of the river would have been without the 
fresh water vital to its operation. The Mississippi 
River as far upstream as Baton Rouge would have 
become brackish. 

Cities, towns, railroads, highways, waterways, 
industry, agriculture, and utilities in the Atchafalaya 
Basin would have been subject to serious disruption. 
The effect would have probably been felt as far 
upstream as Vicksburg on the Mississippi River and 
Boyce on the Red River as a result of swifter currents 
and increased meandering. The investment of the 
United States in flood control and navigation works 
would have been threatened and a large amount of 
it lost. The plan for confining floods below Old River 
would have had to be redesigned and reconstructed. 

The cost associated with providing the necessary 
flood protection against captured flows of the 
Mississippi River down the Old and Atchafalaya 
Rivers has been estimated to be close to $2 billion 
(July 1976 price level). 

In order to preserve the present course of the 
river, a project was authorized by Public Law 780, 
83d Congress, approved September 1954 (a 
modification of the Flood Control Act of May 1928), 
to maintain the balance of flows from the Mississippi 
River into the Atchafalaya River and Basin by control 
structures on the right bank of the Mississippi River. 
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible 
for operation and maintenance of all project features 
except the main-line Mississippi River levee and road. 
Principal features include the following: 

LOW-SILL CONTROL STRUCTURE 

The Old River Low-Sill Control Structure is a 
reinforced-concrete structure consisting of 1 1 gate 
bays, each having a 44- foot clear width between piers. 
The three center bays have a weir crest 5.0 feet 
below mean sea level for passing low flows, and the 
other bays have a weir crest 10.0 feet above mean 



sea level. Total length is 566 feet between 
abutments. Vertical-lift steel gates are operated by 
two traveling gantry cranes. The low-sill control 
structure was completed in 1959. The inflow channel, 
completed in 1960, is 0.5 mile in length and has a 
bottom width of 1,000 feet, 5.0 feet below mean 
sea level. The outflow channel, also completed in 
1960, is 7 miles in length and has a bottom width 
of 900 feet at an average of 9.0 feet below mean 
sea level. About 4,500 acres of land adjacent to these 
channels were cleared during 1963 to provide better 
flow conditions in the overbank area. 

Emergency rehabilitation work under Public 
Law 99 at the Old River Low-Sill Control Structure 
was required because high stages during the 1973 
flood caused a large scour hole to develop underneath 
the structure, and caused bank erosion in the inflow 
and outflow channels. The low-sill control structure 
wing wall on the left descending bank of the inflow 
channel collapsed due to eddy currents which 
undermined the wing-wall base slab. A rock dike was 
constructed to replace the wing wall. 

Other emergency work included the filling of 
voids underneath the structure with a special grouting 
material, placing additional scour protection around 
the structure and installation of a new lighting 
system. The estimated cost of the emergency work 
is $15,700,000, of which $15,250,000 has been 
appropriated as of 30 June 1976. 

To further address problems that occurred 
during the 1973 flood, and possible future problems, 
a comprehensive rehabilitation plan has been 
developed for the Old River Low-Sill and Overbank 
Structures. The rehabilitation plan was initiated 
under the Old River maintenance program in fiscal 
year 1976. 

The primary features of the rehabilitation 
program include modification of the vertical lift gates 
of the low-sill control structure to allow for orifice 
closure, development of a surveillance program to 
monitor channel conditions abutting the low-sill 
structure, operation studies, protection of the 
outflow channel with revetment for both structures, 
development and construction of inflow hydraulic 
control measures for the low-sill structure, and 
remedial measures for the overbank structure to 



15 




OLD RIVER LOW-SILL AND OVERBANK STRUCTURE 




MORGANZA CONTROL STRUCTURE 



BONNET CARRE SPILLWAY 





LOW-SILL 
CONTROL 

STRUCTURE. 



REMOVAL OF DEBRIS PRIOR TO REHABILITATION WORK 




GATE BAYS ALLOW FOR CONTROLLED FLOW 



reduce scour on the downstream side of the structure. 



OLD RIVER NAVIGATION LOCK 



OVERBANK CONTROL STRUCTURE 

The Overbank Control Structure is a 
reinforced-concrete structure consisting of 73 gate 
bays, each having a 44-foot clear width between piers. 
Weir crest is 52.0 feet above mean sea level. Total 
length is 3,356 feet between abutments. Flow is 
controlled by hinged timber panels operated by two 
traveling gantry cranes. This structure, completed in 
1959, was operated in 1973, 1974, and 1975. 



The lock provides for continued navigation 
between the Atchafalaya, Ouachita-Black, and Red 
Rivers, and the Mississippi River through Old River. 
It has a width of 75 feet, a usable length of 
1,190 feet, and sills 11.0 feet below mean sea level. 
Construction of the lock was initiated in 1958 and 
completed in 1962. The approach channels were 
completed and the lock was placed in operation in 
1963. A roadway on the levee crosses the lock on 
a lift bridge which was completed in 1965. Average 



17 



traffic through the lock, 1971-1975, was 4,767,956 
tons. 

LEVEE FROM 

BLACK HAWK TO TORRAS 

Approximately 16 miles of levee are required 
to join the right bank main-line levee at Black Hawk 
with the control structures and lock described above 
and the main-line levee below Old River. This levee 
is complete, and its maintenance is the responsibility 
of the Fifth Louisiana Levee District. Closure of Old 
River was completed during 1963. A levee crown 
width of 40 feet was provided for a roadway built 
and maintained by the Louisiana Highway 
Department. 

BANK STABILIZATION 

In the inflow and outflow channels and along 
the Red and Atchafalaya Rivers between the outflow 
channel and the vicinity of Simmesport, bank 
stabilization works are being constructed as required 
to control the meandering of the main channels. 

The current estimated construction cost of the 
Old River feature is $84,409,000, of which 
$1,409,000 is non- Federal. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, CAIRO, ILLINOIS, 

TO BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA 

(Mississippi River Commission) 

In 1896, Congress authorized a channel 9 feet 
deep and 250 feet wide at low water between Cairo, 
Illinois, and the Head of Passes, Louisiana. In 1928, 
this authorization was extended under the newly 
enacted "Flood Control, Mississippi River and 
Tributaries" project to include an increased channel 
width of 300 feet. In 1944, the authorized channel 
depth from Cairo to Baton Rouge was increased to 
12 feet at low water, with the authorized width 
remaining at 300 feet. 

Presently, in this 725-mile reach, a low-water 
navigation channel 9 feet deep and 300 feet wide 
is maintained by dredging and training works. The 
low-water depth will be increased as the Mississippi 



River channel is stabilized and contracted. 

Closure of secondary channels (Mississippi 
River Channel Improvement, page 7) will result in 
increased efficiency of the main channel with 
attendant lowering of navigation maintenance cost 
between Cairo and Baton Rouge. Maintenance 
performed during the low-water season now involves 
dredging through 40 to 70 crossings (shallow areas 
created as the river swings out of one bend and into 
another) out of a total of about 200. 

The number of crossings dredged and/or 
redredged and the volume of dredging required in any 
one low-water season are dependent largely upon the 
stage and discharge cycle, slopes, width of channel, 
velocities, alignment, and channel stability. Dredging 
required to maintain the 9-foot-deep channel through 
these river crossings ranges from about 25 to 45 
million cubic yards annually. 

Aids to navigation on the Lower Mississippi 
River include fixed shore lights and markers, and 
buoys marking the navigation channel. Total traffic 
on the river between Cairo and Baton Rouge, but 
not including Baton Rouge, during 1975, was 
108,926,777 tons. The 5-year average, 1971-1975, 
was 102,746,280 tons. The total traffic between 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Gulf of Mexico in 
1975 was 311,239,484 tons, as compared with an 
average annual traffic of 283,479,235 tons in this 
reach during the 5-year period, 1971-1975. A survey 
study is being conducted to determine the feasibility 
of extending deepwater navigation between Baton 
Rouge and Natchez, Mississippi (see page 25). 

BATON ROUGE HARBOR- 
DEVIL'S SWAMP 
(New Orleans District) 

In January 1958, a 1 2- foot-deep, 3 00- foot- wide 
channel, which will eventually be about 5 miles long, 
was begun from the Mississippi River near the 
northern city limits of Baton Rouge. The purpose 
of the channel is to provide an industrial expansion 
area for the Port of Baton Rouge. Initially, 
construction of the first 2.5 miles of the channel was 
authorized. This project, which is located along a high 
escarpment on the east bank of the Mississippi River, 



18 



will be completed when the remaining 2.5 miles is 
justified by developments on the initial channel. 

The sum of $649,000 was voluntarily 
contributed by the Greater Baton Rouge Port 
Commission toward construction of the first 
2.5 miles of the channel. This offer of participation 
above and beyond requirements of the authorizing 
act was made in the interest of speeding the 
appropriation of Federal funds for construction and 
indicated a sense of urgent need for the project by 
local interests. 

The 2.5-mile channel, authorized by the River 



and Harbor Act of July 1946 and the Flood Control 
Act of June 1948, was completed July 2, 1959, at 
a cost of $699,200. The River and Harbor Act of 
October 1962 authorized the construction of 
additional dikes and retaining structures to raise the 
excavated material bank above Mississippi River 
stages at a Federal cost of $299,500, provided local 
interests contributed the sum of $100,500 toward the 
cost of the work. Traffic for 1975 was 592,998 tons. 
The estimated cost for the entire project is 
$9,130,000, of which $8,260,000 is Federal and 
$870,000 is non-Federal. 




BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA, ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI 



19 



MONONGAHELA 
RIVER 




GULF INTRACOASTAL 



WATERWAY 



GULF 



OF 



MEXICO 



INLAND FREIGHT TONNAGE ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SYSTEM 
AND THE GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY 1974 



320 



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200 


80 




180 


60 




160 


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140 


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80 




80 


60 


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60 


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MISSISSIPPI RIVER TRAFFIC 

Minneapolis, Minn, to Mouth of Passes 
Net Tons 


20 




1940-1975 







1 III 1 llll II 1 lllll 






CO 

o 



1940 1945 



1950 1955 



1960 



1965 1970 



1975 



MISSISSIPPI DELTA REGION 

(New Orleans District) 

The objective of this feature is to increase 
wetlands productivity by the establishment of an 
ecological regimen favorable to the production of 
oysters, shrimp, fish, fur-bearing animals, and 
migratory waterfowl. Authorized by the Flood 
Control Act of 1965, the feature consists of four 
gated water- or salinity-control structures on the 
banks of the Mississippi River with connecting levees 
and channels that will introduce fresh water from the 
Mississippi River to the bays and marshes of the 
Mississippi Delta. Salinity-control structures will be 
located on the east bank of the river at Bohemia and 
Scarsdale (Caernarvon) and on the west bank at 
Myrtle Grove and Homeplace. The current estimated 
cost (30 October 1976) is $25,700,000, of which 
$19,300,000 is Federal and $6,400,000 is 
non-Federal. Preconstruction planning, initiated in 
1968, has been delayed due to lack of local support. 

ALLUVIAL VALLEY MAPPING 

Topographic maps of the alluvial valley are 
prepared as a part of the work on the MR&T project. 



Quadrangle maps, scale 1:62,500, and topographic 
maps, scale 1:250,000, covering the alluvial valley 
and adjacent areas have been published and are 
periodically revised. These maps are available for sale 
to the public at the U. S. Army Engineer Districts, 
New Orleans, Louisiana, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

GAGES AND OBSERVATIONS 

Gages have been established and are maintained 
at various places on the Mississippi River, its 
tributaries and outlets, and offshore areas of 
Louisiana. Records of stream height (stage) and 
volume of flow (discharge) are published annually by 
each District of the Corps of Engineers. 

Other observations are made by the Corps of 
Engineers to determine the quality of water in 
streams, lakes, and coastal areas. Measurements taken 
include those for salinity, temperature, dissolved 
oxygen, and suspended material. These data are used 
in studies related to construction of projects and 
normal operating procedures in the interest of 
preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining navigation 
channels at proper depths, promoting a favorable 
ecological regimen for fish and wildlife, and other 
considerations. 



Mississippi River 



Three navigation projects not part of the MR&T 
project have been authorized in the Mississippi River 
Basin. These projects are described below: 

LAKE PROVIDENCE HARBOR 
(Vicksburg District) 

Lake Providence Harbor consists of a dredged 
channel connecting with the Mississippi River on the 
west bank, near Mile 484 above the Head of Passes, 
and a turning basin at the landward end of the 
channel. The channel is 0.5 mile in length with a 
depth of 9 feet over a bottom width of 150 feet. 
The turning basin is 1,000 feet long, flaring from a 



bottom width of 150 feet at its junction with the 
channel to 400 feet at a point 400 feet landward 
of the junction. The depth in the turning basin is 
9 feet. 

Excavated material from the channel and 
turning basin was deposited adjacent to the turning 
basin for a raised port area. Local interests 
constructed the dikes required to retain all excavated 
material. They also constructed a fill for railroad and 
highway access to the area. 

Constructed under Section 107 of the River and 
Harbor Act of 1960, as amended, the project was 
completed in November 1963 at a Federal cost of 
$198,859. Subsequent to completion of the project, 



22 




NAVIGATION DEPTHS ARE MAINTAINED BY PIPELINE DREDGING AND. . . 



local interests have made additional expenditure on 
port facilities. Average annual traffic moving through 
this harbor, 1971-1975, was 297,000 tons. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, BATON ROUGE 
TO GULF OF MEXICO 
(New Orleans District) 

Maintenance of sufficient navigation depths on 
the Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to the Gulf 
is a project of major importance. The Port of New 
Orleans, which is about 95 miles above the Head of 
Passes on the Mississippi River, is the second largest 
port in the United States in waterborne commerce. 
Baton Rouge, located 135 miles upstream from New 
Orleans, is the sixth largest port in the Nation. 

The average annual traffic on the Mississippi 
River between Baton Rouge and the Gulf for the 
years 1971-1975 was 235,545,869 tons. In 1975, 
com, soybeans, crude petroleum, coal and lignite, and 
gasoline accounted for about 52 percent of the 
263,879,954 tons of cargo that traveled this 
waterway. Other major cargoes of the more than 150 
categories listed for this waterway include aluminum 
ore, distillate fuel oil, basic chemicals, salt, sulphur, 
and phosphate rock. 

Several separate projects for the Mississippi 
River, Baton Rouge to New Orleans, South Pass, and 
Southwest Pass were combined by the River and 




. . .SIDECASTER DREDGING. 

Harbor Acts of 1945 and 1962. Authorized 
dimensions are: between Baton Rouge and New 
Orleans, 40 feet deep by 500 feet wide; 40 feet 
deep for a width of 500 feet within the 35-foot-deep 
by 1,500- foot- wide channel in the Port limits of New 
Orleans; New Orleans to Head of Passes, 40 feet deep 
by 1,000 feet wide; Southwest Pass, 40 feet deep 
by 800 feet wide; Southwest Pass bar channel, 
40 feet deep by 600 feet wide; South Pass, 30 feet 
deep by 450 feet wide; and South Pass bar channel, 
30 feet deep by 600 feet wide. 



23 



The project is complete except for the 
construction of lateral pile dikes and bank 
nourishment items in Southwest Pass. Construction 
of these dikes is tentatively scheduled to begin in 
1978 pending the receipt of construction funds. 
Estimated construction cost is about $83 million plus 
$29,800 for U. S. Coast Guard for aids to navigation. 
The cost of the project to 30 June 1976 is 
$33,262,200. 

The project was modified in 1956 to include 
construction of a seaway canal 36 feet deep over a 
bottom width of 500 feet from the Inner Harbor 
Navigation Canal in New Orleans to the Gulf of 
Mexico. This feature is fully described on page 105 
under "Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet." 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER OUTLETS, 
VENICE 

(New Orleans District) 

These outlets will be provided by enlargement 
of the existing channels of Baptiste Collette Bayou 



and Grand- Tigre Passes. Channel dimensions will be 
14 feet deep over a bottom width of 150 feet, 
except for entrance channels which will be 16 by 
250 feet. Jetties to reduce the cost of maintenance 
dredging will be constructed to the -6- foot contour, 
if and when justified. 

The extensive offshore oil operations, most of 
which are based in Venice, will realize considerable 
savings in transportation costs using these channels 
rather than South or Southwest Pass of the 
Mississippi River. Commercial and sport fishermen 
and hunters will derive similar time and distance 
benefits. 

The project was authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1968. Estimated Federal cost (June 
1976) is $4,164,000 for construction, plus $88,000 
for the U. S. Coast Guard for aids to navigation. 
Estimated non-Federal cost is $2,108,000. 
Preconstruction planning funds in the amount of 
$300,000 were expended through 30 June 1976. 
Construction is scheduled to begin in the fall of 
1977. 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



PORT OF LAKE PROVIDENCE 
(Vicksburg District) 

A special flood hazard information report, 
covering the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the 



Port of Lake Providence, was prepared as requested 
by the Executive Director of the Lake Providence 
Port Commission. The report was completed in 
August 1970. 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



LAKE PROVIDENCE HARBOR 
(Vicksburg District) 

A study was completed in 1976 to determine 
whether modifications to the existing harbor project 
were advisable. Results of the study indicate that no 
further modifications to the project are economically 
feasible. The report is currently under review. 



LOUISIANA STATE PENITENTIARY 
LEVEE, MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

(New Orleans District) 

This study was initiated in 1976 to review the 
MR&T project with particular reference to 
incorporating all or part of the existing levee system 
at the Louisiana State Penitentiary into the Federal 



24 




TRANSPORTATION SAVINGS THROUGH WATERBORNE COMMERCE 



levee system. The study is scheduled for completion 
in 1979. 

LOWER MISSISSIPPI REGION 

COMPREHENSIVE STUDY 
(Mississippi River Commission) 

This study was conducted to provide a 
framework plan for developing the water and related 
land resources in the region to meet foreseeable short- 
and long-term needs. The report was forwarded to 
the Water Resources Council in May 1975. The report 
is currently under congressional review. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, BATON ROUGE 
TO NATCHEZ, MISSISSIPPI 
(New Orleans District) 

The study was initiated in 1974 to review 
reports on the Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to the 
Gulf of Mexico, with particular reference to 
extending the deepwater navigation project from its 
present upstream limits at Baton Rouge to Natchez, 
Mississippi. In 1976 this study was incorporated into 
the "Mississippi River, Cairo, Illinois, to Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana," study. 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER, CAIRO, 
ILLINOIS, TO BATON 
ROUGE, LOUISIANA 

(Mississippi River Commission) 

This study was initiated in 1976 to review 
reports on the Mississippi River between Cairo and 
Baton Rouge with a view toward determining 
whether the existing project should be modified to 
provide a navigation channel with greater dimensions 
than now currently authorized. The study is 
scheduled for completion in 1982. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER- 
GULF OUTLET 
(New Orleans District) 

This study was initiated in 1968 to review the 
existing project with particular reference to providing 
a channel having a minimum depth of 50 feet and 
a minimum bottom width of 750 feet from New 
Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico, and a channel from 
New Orleans to Baton Rouge having a minimum 
depth of 50 feet and a minimum bottom width of 
500 feet. The study is scheduled for completion in 
1979. 



25 



ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN 





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ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN 



ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



The Atchafalaya River Basin located in 
south-central Louisiana originates at the confluence 
of the Mississippi, Red, and Atchafalaya Rivers near 
Simmesport. The basin extends in a general 
north-south direction from the latitude of Old River 
and Bayou des Glaises to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Improvements in the basin have been constructed 
and/or authorized primarily under the MR&T 
project. 

Flood protection works in this basin form an 
integral and extremely important part of the entire 
project for the control of floods of the Lower 
Mississippi River. At the latitude of Old River, the 
design project flood has been determined to be 
3,000,000 cubic feet per second. The project allows 
one-half of the flow to continue down the main river 



channel and the other half to be introduced through 
the Morganza and West Atchafalaya Floodways and 
the Atchafalaya River into the Atchafalaya Basin 
Floodway. Floodways follow opposite sides of the 
Atchafalaya River to the end of the levee system 
along the Atchafalaya River where they merge into 
a single broad floodway from which flow reaches the 
Gulf of Mexico through Wax Lake Outlet and the 
Lower Atchafalaya River. Portions of this project are 
complete. Planning is under way to develop boating 
access to the floodway area. It is very important to 
note, however, that until the entire floodway 
program is completed, the flood control plan will be 
only partially effective. Individual projects in the 
basin are described in the following paragraphs and 
shown on the map in back of the text. 



Projects 
MR&T PROJECTS 



ATCHAFALAYA BASIN FLOODWAY 

(New Orleans District) 



floodway are described as separate features. (See map 
in back of this pamphlet.) 



The floodway is located between protection 
levees approximately 1 5 miles apart extending from 
the lower limits of the Morganza and West 
Atchafalaya Floodways at the latitude of Krotz 
Springs to Morgan City and through the Lower 
Atchafalaya River and Wax Lake Outlet to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The improvements necessary to this 



ATCHAFALAYA BASIN BANK 
STABILIZATION 

(New Orleans District) 

Bank stabilization works are being constructed 
from above the vicinity of Simmesport to the lower 
end of the main stem levee system to maintain a 



29 




WEST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN PROTECTION LEVEE 



favorable alignment for navigation and for protection 
of the levee system. Through 30 June 1976, 
26.3 miles of revetment have been placed. 

ATCHAFALAYA BASIN LEVEES 
(New Orleans District) 

All levees in the Atchafalaya Basin except the 
guide levees for the Morganza Floodway (page 12) 
are included under this heading. The levee system is 
designed to protect agricultural areas and towns from 
the normal high waters of the Mississippi- Red River 
backwater area, floods on the Atchafalaya River, and 
when necessary, to introduce excess floodwaters of 
the Mississippi and Red Rivers at the latitude of Old 
River through the Atchafalaya River, the Morganza, 
West Atchafalaya, and Atchafalaya Basin Floodways 
to the Gulf of Mexico via Wax Lake Outlet and the 
Lower Atchafalaya River. The levees also protect 
valuable agricultural lands below Morgan City and 
west of Berwick from backwaters created by the 
floodwater. The system includes about 423 miles of 
levees and currently will contain a flood of about 
1,000,000 cubic feet per second. Work is under way 



to raise the floodway levees to an elevation to confine 
a design flow of 1,500,000 cubic feet per second. 
Individual levee features within the existing 
Atchafalaya system include the following. 

EAST ATCHAFALAYA 
BASIN PROTECTION LEVEE 

The levee begins at the lower end of the east 
guide levee of the Morganza Floodway, extends 
southward to and through Morgan City to Cutoff 
Bayou, and includes the Bayou Boeuf and Bayou 
Sorrel Locks. The length of this system is 87.8 miles, 
including 1.3 miles of floodwall along Morgan City 
front and about 0.4 mile of floodwall below Morgan 
City. The Atchafalaya Basin Levee District, the city 
of Morgan City, and the St. Mary Parish Police Jury 
are responsible for operation and maintenance of this 
feature. 

WEST ATCHAFALAYA 
BASIN PROTECTION LEVEE 

The levee begins near the town of Hamburg 



30 



where it joins the Bayou des Glaises fuseplug levee. 
It extends in a south and southeasterly direction to 
the Wax Lake Outlet at the latitude of the East and 
West Calumet Floodgates and thence eastward to and 
through Berwick to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 
below. This levee extends 126.5 miles and connects 
with 1 mile of floodwall along the front of the town 
of Berwick. Structures along the levee include Bayou 
Darbonne and Courtableau drainage structures, the 
Charenton Floodgate, and the Berwick Lock, 
described on pages 35 and 36. 

The Red River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou Boeuf 
Levee District, the Atchafalaya Basin Levee District; 
the town of Berwick, and the St. Mary Parish Police 
Jury are responsible for operation and maintenance. 

EAST ATCHAFALAYA RIVER LEVEE 

The levee extends from the junction of the 
Atchafalaya, Old, and Red Rivers along the east bank 
of the Atchafalaya River to approximately 10 miles 
below Alabama Bayou, a distance of about 51 miles. 
The Atchafalaya Basin Levee District is responsible 
for maintenance. 

WEST ATCHAFALAYA RIVER LEVEE 

The levee extends southward from Bayou des 
Glaises levee at Simmesport along the west bank of 
the Atchafalaya River and Bayou La Rose to 
approximately 2 miles below Butte La Rose, a 
distance of about 61 miles. Additional levees include 
the Simmesport ring levee, 1.6 miles in length and 
its drainage outlet, Brushy Bayou Drainage Structure; 
Melville ring levee, 4.1 miles in length and its 
drainage structures; the Krotz Springs ring levee, 
1.7 miles in length; and the Krotz Springs levee south 
of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, 2 miles in length. 
The total length of levee in this system is about 
70 miles. The Red River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou 
Boeuf Levee District is responsible for mainte- 
nance of the portion of this levee from Simmes- 
port to Bayou Courtableau. The remaining por- 
tion is maintained by the Atchafalaya Basin Levee 
District. 



BAYOU DES GLAISES FUSEPLUG LEVEE 

The levee extends from the town of Simmesport 
west and along the south bank of Bayou des Glaises 
to the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levees near 
Hamburg, a distance of approximately 8 miles. This 
levee protects the lands in the West Atchafalaya 
Floodway from floodwaters in the Mississippi-Red 
River backwater area until stages requiring the use 
of the West Atchafalaya Floodway are reached. 
Floodwaters will then enter the floodway by 
overtopping the levee. The Red River, Atchafalaya, 
and Bayou Boeuf Levee District is responsible for 
maintenance. 

MANSURA HILLS TO HAMBURG LEVEE 

The levee extends from the Mansura Hills, along 
the north bank of Bayou des Glaises to the 
State-owned drainage structure in Bayou des Glaises 
(Bordelonville Floodgate), across the structure and 
southward to the junction of the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee and the Bayou des Glaises 
fuseplug levee near the town of Hamburg. This 
20-mile levee protects the area west of the floodways 
and west of Marksville from Mississippi-Red River 
backwater flooding. The Red River, Atchafalaya, and 
Bayou Boeuf Levee District is responsible for 
maintenance. 

LEVEES WEST OF BERWICK 

A total of approximately 58 miles of 
intermittent levees tying into high ground are west 
of Berwick. They have been designed to protect the 
cultivatable lands along the Teche and Sale Ridges 
from the backwaters created by the introduction of 
floodwaters from the Mississippi and Red Rivers 
through the floodways, the Wax Lake Outlet, and 
the Lower Atchafalaya River. 

The levee system begins at the lower end of the 
West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee below 
Berwick and extends westward generally along the 
north bank of the Intracoastal Waterway and east 
bank of Wax Lake Outlet, to the East Calumet 



31 



Floodgate. It continues on the opposite side of Wax 
Lake Outlet at the West Calumet Floodgate following 
a southerly and westerly direction along Wax Lake 
Outlet and the north bank of the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway to high ground at Bayou Sale, then 
following along an irregular alignment around the 
Bayou Sale Ridge below the Intracoastal Waterway 
and northward above the Intracoastal Waterway to 
the Charenton Drainage Canal near Baldwin. 

Drainage for the enclosed area is through about 
38 miles of canals, 3 drainage structures, 20 gated 
culverts, an inverted siphon, and pumping stations. 

The Maryland, Ellerslie, Franklin, Bayou 
Yokely, Bayou Yokely Enlargement, Wax Lake East, 
and North Bend Pumping Stations, 19 of the gated 
culverts, and the Wax Lake East and Wax Lake West 
Drainage Structures are complete. The Wax Lake East 
inverted siphon was completed in August 1963. The 
Wax Lake West Pumping Station was completed in 
April 1965. Enlargement of the Franklin Pumping 
Station was begun in July 1976 and is scheduled for 
completion in October 1977. 

WEST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN 
PROTECTION LEVEE, LANDSIDE 
DRAINAGE IMPROVEMENTS 

(New Orleans District) 

Drainage intercepted by the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee is provided for under this 
project by enlargement of the landside borrow pit 
and natural streams in the area. Features of these 
improvements are as follows. 

BAYOU DES GLAISES 
DIVERSION CHANNEL, STATE 
CANAL, AND BAYOU ROSEAU 

The Bayou des Glaises Diversion Channel, 
completed in 1939, connects Bayou des Glaises with 
the landside borrow pit of the West Atchafalaya Basin 
protection levee. This channel will operate at full 
capacity when the State-owned floodgate on Bayou 
des Glaises near Bordelonville is closed. Other 
landside drainage intercepted by the Mansura Hills 
to Hamburg levee is taken off by the enlarged channel 



of State Canal and Bayou Roseau between Mill Bayou 
and the main diversion channel which was completed 
in 1943. The cost of these improvements was 
$228,000. 

BAYOU DES GLAISES CULVERT 

The culvert consists of a 72-inch corrugated pipe 
culvert with flap gate and concrete stilling basin. It 
passes through the Old Bayou des Glaises levee 
connecting the floodway side borrow pit of the 
Bordelonville-Hamburg levee with Bayou des Glaises 
proper, and provides an outlet for the water 
accumulating within the Bayou des Glaises loop. It 
was completed, in 1939 at a cost of $26,000. 

BORROW PIT ENLARGEMENT 

BETWEEN HAMBURG AND COURTABLEAU 

Enlargement of inadequate sections of the bor- 
row pits was completed in 1939 at a cost of $345,000. 

BAYOU DARBONNE 
DRAINAGE STRUCTURE 

The structure is located in the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee at the Bayou Darbonne 
crossing and consists of a reinforced-concrete box 
culvert 10 by 10 by 265 feet long, with a 
motor-controlled gate. This structure is used during 
low stages on the landside to permit flow, when 
possible, from the West Atchafalaya Floodway to 
Bayou Teche through Bayou Courtableau and 
thereby provides water frequently needed for 
irrigation purposes. During landside flood stages 
floodwaters in the borrow pit pass through the 
structure to the floodway. It will be closed during 
operation of the West Atchafalaya Basin Floodway. 
The structure was completed in 1941 at a cost of 
$60,000 and is operated by the U. S. Army Corps 
of Engineers. 

BAYOU COURTABLEAU DD7ERSION 
CHANNELS AND CONTROL STRUCTURE 

The original channel of Bayou Courtableau was 



32 



blocked by construction of the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee extending to the levee borrow 
pit. To retain and introduce low-water flow into 
Bayou Teche at Port Barre for use in rice irrigation 
in the Teche and Vermilion River Basins where it 
is frequently needed, two reinforced-concrete weirs 
with crests of 18.0 feet above mean sea level were 
constructed on the south bank of Bayou Courtableau 
just west of the West Atchafalaya protection levee. 
Rood flows pass over the weirs into two adjacent 
channels excavated below the weirs, then into the 
borrow pit below. The width of the east weir is 
482 feet and the west weir, 517 feet. The diversion 
channels were completed in 1939 at a cost of 
$36,700, and the structures were completed in 1942 
at a cost of $14,500. The structures are operated and 
maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 



width of 65 feet, 15 feet below mean sea level. Flow 
through this enlarged channel supplements the runoff 
through the borrow pit. It was completed in 1940 
at a cost of $277,000. 

CYPREMORT TO DAUTERIVE 

Channel improvement from Cypremort to 
Dauterive extends in a southerly direction in the 
landside borrow pit, commencing about 1 mile south 
of Cypremort and ending opposite the head of Lake 
Dauterive, a distance of 14.3 miles. The borrow pit 
was enlarged, and Bayou Mercier and two 
distributaries of Lake Catahoula were improved. The 
channel and the Bayou Berard Drainage Canal are 
supplemental improvements. The channel was 
completed in 1941 at a cost of $791,000. 



COURTABLEAU DRAINAGE 
STRUCTURE AND CHANNELS 

The structure and channels are located 
approximately 2 miles southeast of the village of 
Courtableau in St. Landry Parish. Construction of 
the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee 
intercepted the natural drainage of the Bayou 
Courtableau Basin, located west and north of the 
levee. The feature consists of a five-barrel (each 
10 feet wide and 15 feet high), reinforced-concrete, 
box-type culvert 220 feet long with five 
mechanically operated vertical-lift gates at the outlet 
end; an inlet channel approximately 1,800 feet long; 
an outlet channel approximately 23,500 feet in 
length; a 1,300-foot levee along the south bank of 
the inlet channel with a 12-foot-wide gravel road on 
the crown; and guide levees on both banks of the 
outlet channel for confining drainage flows passed 
through the structure. The feature was completed in 
1950 at a cost of $1,400,000. 

BAYOU BERARD DRAINAGE CANAL 

The canal extends from the landside borrow pit 
in the vicinity of Cypremort, about 3 miles below 
Henderson, to the head of Lake Catahoula, a distance 
of 7 miles. Enlarged twice, it now has a bottom 



CHARENTON DRAINAGE CANAL 

This canal is a drainage connection extending 
from the Charenton Floodgate to Bayou Teche and 
thence along Bayou Teche and a new land cut to 
West Cote Blanche Bay, an arm of the Gulf of 
Mexico. It provides an outlet for the intercepted 
drainage carried by the West Atchafalaya Basin 
protection levee borrow pit. The canal has a bottom 
width of 75 feet, 30 feet below mean sea level, and 
a design discharge capacity of approximately 22,000 
cubic feet per second. This improvement required the 
construction of one railroad bridge and three highway 
bridges. It was completed in 1948 at a cost of 
$2,955,000. 

EAST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN 

PROTECTION LEVEE, LANDSIDE 

DRAINAGE IMPROVEMENTS 

(New Orleans District) 

After closure of the Bayou Pigeon navigation 
connection and during the construction of the Bayou 
Sorrel Lock (page 37) drainage intercepted by the 
East Atchafalaya Basin protection levee was provided 
for by enlarging portions of the borrow pit and 
nearby streams. These improvements serve as a 
navigation route between Bayou Sorrel Lock and the 



33 



Intracoastal Waterway. Although about 22 miles 
longer than the project route between Port Allen and 
Morgan City, the landside route affords easier 
navigation in times of flood and swift currents. 
During times of low rainfall east of the levee, fresh 
water may be passed through Bayou Sorrel and Port 
Allen Locks into the channels east of the levee. The 
drainage improvements are described below. 

LOTTIE TO BAYOU MARINGOUIN 
BORROW PIT ENLARGEMENT 

This improvement consists of the enlargement 
of the restricted sections of the landside borrow pit 
between a point one-quarter mile south of Lottie and 
Bayou Maringouin. Work was completed in 1940 at 
a cost of $126,000. 

BAYOU BOEUF-BAYOU 

LONG DRAINAGE CANAL AND 

ENLARGEMENT OF BAYOU CHENE 

The improvement of existing streams along the 
landside of the East Atchafalaya Basin protection 
levee from the Bayou Sorrel Lock to the vicinity of 
Lake Palourde, a new land cut around the east side 
of Lake Palourde to Bayou Boeuf, and the 
enlargement of Bayou Boeuf to provide a minimum 
channel of 9 by 100 feet for drainage and navigation 
from the Intracoastal Waterway to the levee borrow 
pit were the features of this project. The 
improvements were completed in 1947 at a cost of 
$501,000. 

ATCHAFALAYA RIVER 
IMPROVEMENT DREDGING 

(New Orleans District) 

Improvement dredging of the leveed channel of 
the Atchafalaya River and of its outlets is provided 
under this feature. Work includes the enlargement of 
the openings of existing railroad and highway bridges 
across the Atchafalaya River, and such alterations of 
existing crossings of this river as are deemed necessary 
to the execution of the plan. Other restricted sections 
of the channel are to be enlarged to increase the flood 



flow capacity of the Atchafalaya River. The 
improvement extends from the confluence of the 
Red, Old, and Atchafalaya Rivers to Alabama Bayou, 
Mile 57. All work has been completed, unless at a 
later date it is found that additional improvements 
are required. The costs of construction to date are 
as follows: 



Item 



Amount* 



Dredging 


$1,080,000 


Simmesport highway and railroad 
bridge 897-foot extension and 
3 deep piers (1937) 


986,000 


N.O.T. & M. Railway bridge at 
Krotz Springs 1,270-foot ex- 
tension and 2 deep piers (1937) 


824,000 


Fascine mattresses 


68,000 


Raising entire bridge 
6 feet (1953) 


370,000 


T. & P. Railway bridge at 
Melville extension (1952) 


1,250,000 


Total for feature 


$4,578,000 



* The nonconstruction costs for the improvement are in- 
cluded in the overall project cost. 



ATCHAFALAYA BASIN MAIN 

CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT 

DREDGING 

(New Orleans District) 

The flood-carrying capacity of the Atchafalaya 
is being preserved by dredging a continuous main 
channel through the swamps of the central portion 
of the basin. The capacity of the floodway is being 
reduced by sedimentation in the floodway. The main 
channel will preserve floodway capacity and reduce 
wetland loss by reducing overbank sedimentation in 
the lower Atchafalaya floodway. The dredging 
extends from the Atchafalaya River at Alabama 
Bayou to the main body of Sixmile Lake near Morgan 
City. No work has been performed on this feature 
since December 1968. The need and feasibility of 
continued channel dredging is being considered as a 
part of the Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land 
Resources) study currently under way. Estimated 
costs for this feature are: 



34 



Item 



Dredging 

Dredging (future) 

Pipeline and utilities (completed) 

Pipeline and utilities (future) 

Total for feature 



Amount 

$ 45,470,000 

144,245,000 

914,000 

11,539,000 

$202,168,000 



RAILROAD BRIDGE AT 

BERWICK 

(New Orleans District) 

To accommodate the introduction of additional 
floodwaters through the Atchafalaya Basin, the Texas 
and New Orleans (Southern Pacific) railroad bridge 
at Berwick was raised 4 feet. Work was completed 
in 1942 at a cost of $360,000. Further modification 
of this bridge for navigation has been directed under 
the Truman-Hobbs Act. 

WAX LAKE OUTLET 

(New Orleans District) 

This outlet, with a present capacity of 300,000 
cubic feet per second, was constructed to provide 
additional means for conveyance of floodwaters from 
the Atchafalaya Basin to reduce flood heights and 
to protect, during extreme floods, the cultivable lands 
along the Teche and Boeuf Ridges and vital 
transcontinental routes of communication at the 
latitude of Morgan City. This dredged channel, 
located about 10 miles west of Berwick, extends 
from Sixmile Lake through the Teche Ridge and Wax 
Lake into Atchafalaya Bay, a distance of about 
15.7 miles. 

The channel has a bottom width of 300 feet 
from Sixmile Lake to a point one-half mile below 
Bayou Teche and of 400 feet below that point, and 
a uniform depth of 45 feet below mean sea level. 
The excavated material from the channel dredging 
was used to construct guide levees extending from 
the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee to the 
Intracoastal Waterway on each side of the outlet. 

The East and West Calumet Floodgates, 
described in the following paragraph, were constructed 



where the guide levees cross Bayou Teche to allow 
continued navigation and to regulate flood flows to 
some extent. New bridges were constructed to carry 
U. S. Highway 90 and the Southern Pacific lines over 
the dredged channel. 

This improvement was completed in 1942 at a 
cost of $7,122,000, and is maintained by the U. S. 
Army Corps of Engineers except for the bridges 
which are maintained by their owners. 

EAST AND WEST CALUMET 

FLOODGATES 

(New Orleans District) 

These floodgates are located in the East and 
West Wax Lake Outlet guide levees where the levees 
cross Bayou Teche. Each floodgate is a 
reinforced-concrete structure 161 feet long with a 
45-foot clear width, a sill 9.8 feet below mean sea 
level, and steel sector gates. 

The floodgates allow navigation in Bayou Teche 
and to some extent regulate flood flows. They were 
completed in 1950 at a cost of $1,320,000. 
Operation and maintenance are the responsibility of 
the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

CHARENTON FLOODGATE 
(New Orleans District) 

This floodgate is located in the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee, about 1 mile north of 
Charenton. It is a reinforced-concrete structure 175 
feet long with a clear width of 45 feet, a bottom 
10.8 feet below mean sea level, and steel sector 
gates. 

The floodgate regulates flows between Bayou 
Teche and the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway and 
affords a navigation connection between Grand Lake 
and the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee 
borrow pit and Charenton Drainage Canal. In 1951 
a removable bridge with a low steel elevation of 20.7 
feet, mean sea level, was constructed across the 
structure. The floodgate was completed in 1948 at 
a cost of $298,000. Charenton Floodgate is operated 
by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 



35 




ilii 






f 




EAST CALUMET FLOODGATES 







«iii<«SB«iIni 



llgfilfflil 



jjgafcA. 




WEST CALUMET FLOODGATES 



BERWICK LOCK 

(New Orleans District) 

Located in the west protection levee near its 
crossing of the Lower Atchafalaya River about 2 
miles north of the town of Berwick, this lock is a 



reinforced-concrete structure 45 feet wide with sills 
9.0 feet below mean sea level and a usable length 
of 300 feet between steel sector gates. It affords a 
navigation passage through the levee and permits 
navigation up the Lower Atchafalaya River to 
Patterson and to Bayou Teche. The lock was 



36 



completed in 1951 at a cost of $2,100,000 and is 
maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 
Tonnage data are not collected because the lock is 
operated only a portion of the year. 



completed in October 1952 at a cost of $4,700,948 
and is operated and maintained by the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers. Average annual traffic through 
the lock, 1971-1975, was 15,720,542 tons. 



BAYOU SORREL LOCK 

(New Orleans District) 



BAYOU BOEUF LOCK 
(New Orleans District) 



This lock, located in the East Atchafalaya Basin 
protection levee at its intersection with the Morgan 
City-Port Allen Route to the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway, about 15 miles below Plaquemine, 
provides a navigation connection through the levee. 
The structure consists of two reinforce d-concrete gate 
bays equipped with steel sector gates and connected 
with an earth chamber having a timber guide wall 
on one side. The usable length is 790 feet, the clear 
width is 56 feet, and the depth over the sills is 15 
feet at mean low water. 

The navigation route between Port Allen and 
Morgan City through the lock is about 22 miles 
shorter than the landside waterway. The lock was 



This lock is located in the East Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee below Morgan City at a point 
where it crosses Bayou Boeuf and the Intracoastal 
Waterway. It consists of two reinforced-concrete gate 
bays equipped with steel sector gates connected by 
an earth chamber which has a timber guide wall on 
both sides. The lock has a length of 1,148 feet, a 
clear width of 75 feet, and a depth over sills of 13 
feet at mean low Gulf level. The Bayou Boeuf Lock 
provides for navigation through the levee which 
protects the areas and communities east of Morgan 
City from the floodwaters from the Atchafalaya 
Basin. It was opened to navigation in September 1954 
and dredging of all approach channels together with 




BAYOU BOEUF LOCK 



11 



other improvements was completed early in 1955. 
The lock, excluding approach channels, was 
completed at a cost of about $2,754,000. It is 
operated and maintained by the U. S. Army Corps 
of Engineers. Average annual traffic through the lock, 
1971-1975, was 26,243,682 tons. 

IMPROVEMENTS FOR ACCESS, 

FISH AND WILDLIFE, 

AND RECREATION 

(New Orleans District). 

A program has been initiated to minimize 
disruption to basin access and damage to the fish and 
wildlife resource occasioned by the construction of 
the flood control improvements. A recreation master 
plan prepared in the New Orleans District is being 
considered for approval. Under this plan, 20 
recreation areas including parking and launching 
facilities will be constructed. These areas will be 
managed and maintained by local interests. In 
addition to the above, positive measures are being 
taken on all hydraulic dredging done in the basin to 



ensure that all excavated material is confined to 
designated areas, and that all liquid effluent from 
the dredging process is returned to the main 
channel. 

EAST AND WEST ACCESS CHANNELS 

This feature consists of channels, 7 by 80 feet, 
which provide navigable connections between the 
East and West Atchafalaya guide levees. They are 
used by both commercial and recreational craft and 
permit basin-wide access to and from the main 
channel. An additional function of these channels is 
to distribute fresh water to the overbank areas which 
they traverse. 

EAST AND WEST FRESHWATER 
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 

These channels are being maintained to 
distribute fresh water on the east and west sides of 
the Atchafalaya Basin during seasons of low water 
on the Atchafalaya River system. The intermittent 




FISHING IN LOUISIANA BAYOUS 



38 



overflow from these channels is beneficial to fishing 
and hunting activities in the area. 

EAST AND WEST FRESHWATER 
DIVERSION STRUCTURES 

These structures will be constructed in the 
Atchafalaya River levees at Sherburne and the 
vicinity of Bayou Courtableau to supply fresh water 
from the Atchafalaya River to the marshlands on 
both the east and west sides of the river. Each 
structure will consist of two 10- by 10- foot gated 
culverts. 

Water introduced by gravity flow into the 
Ramah area of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway, east 
of the Atchafalaya River, will be distributed by the 
structure at Sherburne through Big Alabama Bayou, 
Bayou des Glaises, and connecting channels. Water 
introduced into the Henderson area of the 
Atchafalaya Basin Floodway, west of the Atchafalaya 
River, will be distributed by the Bayou Courtableau 
structure through Little Fordoche Bayou and 
connecting swamp channels. 

RETENTION DIKES 

Prior to dredging in the Atchafalaya Basin, a 
system of dikes, ditches, and weirs are constructed 
to prevent damage to high-value habitat. The dikes 
serve to confine excavated material to carefully 
chosen areas, while the ditches and weirs return spill 
water from the dredging process to the main channel. 
The system will thus preclude the incursion of 
sediments into existing off-channel open-water areas 
and hence minimize alteration of the basin's unique 
environment. 

As part of the plan, an existing opening in the 
main channel bank at Pat's Throat will be maintained. 
Openings at Jakes Bayou and "The Crevasse" will also 
be maintained if experience shows that this is 
practicable. 

ATCHAFALAYA RIVER 
(New Orleans District) 

Channel work on the Atchafalaya River, 



completed in February of 1956 at a cost of 
$303,500, is a navigation feature of the MR&T 
project. The channel, 12 feet deep over a bottom 
width of 125 feet, extends from the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway at Morgan City to the Mississippi River via 
the Atchafalaya and Old Rivers. As a shortcut from 
the Gulf to the upper Mississippi, this project affords 
travel savings of 172 miles and eases port congestion 
at New Orleans. Average annual traffic, 1971-1975, 
was 4,675,890 tons, with 2,598,038 tons reported 
in 1975. 

LOWER RED RIVER 
(New Orleans District) 

This project is a main stem feature of the MR&T 
project. It consists of about 60 miles of levees 
designed to prevent Mississippi River backwater from 
entering the alluvial lands south of the Red River 
and also protect against headwater floods on the 
Lower Red River. Improvements extend from 
Hot wells to Moncla along the right bank of Red 
River. 

Bank stabilization works, including dikes and/or 
revetments, are being placed at locations where caving 
banks constitute a threat to the levee's integrity and 
levee setbacks would be uneconomical. A surfaced 
road will be constructed for the entire length of the 
levee. 

Some 47 miles of levee, about 78 percent of 
the total length, have been completed to final grade 
and section. The remainder, while incomplete to 
some degree, does provide a high degree of 
protection. The estimated cost is $31,400,000, of 
which $11,992,000 has been allotted through 
30 September 1976. 

During 1956, the right bank levee, a local levee 
between Moncla and Lake Long, was rehabilitated to 
consistent grade and uniform cross section. The work 
was accomplished under Section 6 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1920. Total cost was $117,300, of 
which approximately $39,000 was contributed by 
local interests. This particular section of levee is still 
maintained by local interests. 

The Coulee des Grues Culvert is a triple 8- by 
8-foot barrel-gated structure located in the 



39 



Control Structure for 
Freshwater Distribution 



Control Structure for 
Freshwater Distribution 

Henderson ^ 




LAUNCHING QAMP 

20 SITES 



BAYOU SORRC-L 
LOCk 




ATCHAFALAYA BASIN 

IMPROVEMENTS FOR ACCESS, FISH 
AND WILDLIFE, AND RECREATION 
IN THE ATCHAFALAYA BASIN. 



Morgan 
City 



embankment where Louisiana State Highway 1 
crosses over Coulee des Grues. The structure closes 
a gap in the hills which extends from the West 
Atchafalaya Basin protection levee to the south bank 
of Red River levees. The culvert was originally built 
by local interests in connection with construction of 
the highway. During periods of high water in the Red 
River backwater area, the structure is closed. 

As originally constructed, the highway 
embankment was deficient in cross section required 
for a levee. Modifications consisted of extending the 
structure, installing manually operated gates, and 
enlarging the embankment. In 1954 the U. S. Army 
Corps of Engineers completed the modification at a 
cost of $59,000. Maintenance of this feature is the 
responsibility of the Red River, Atchafalaya, and 
Bayou Boeuf Levee District. 

BAYOU COCODRIE AND 

TRIBUTARIES 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized under the Flood Control Act of 
August 1941, this project provides for construction 
of a 59.8-mile diversion channel from Bayou Rapides 
west of Alexandria to Bayou Courtableau above 
Washington; clearing and snagging of 2.2 miles of 
Bayou Boeuf; enlargement of 14.9 miles of Bayou 
Boeuf; enlargement of 15.3 miles of Bayou Cocodrie; 
and clearing and snagging of 10.0 miles of Bayou 
Cocodrie. Gated control structures are located at the 
head of the diversion channel and in Bayou 
Lamourie. A fixed-crest weir near Lecompte ensures 
equitable low-water flow in Bayou Boeuf. 

This project has been modified to provide for 
the construction of the Washington-Courtableau 
Diversion Channel from the lower end of the Bayou 
Cocodrie Diversion Channel near the town of 
Washington to the Bayou Courtableau Drainage 
Structure to augment the capacity of Bayou 
Courtableau, and for the construction of a 
three-barrel drainage structure adjacent to the Bayou 
Courtableau Drainage Structure to provide for 
diversion of the increased flows generated by the new 
channel into the floodway. 

Authorized in 1941, the project is complete 



except for the enlargement of 13.5 miles of upper 
Bayou Boeuf and the channel improvement of 25.3 
miles of Bayou Cocodrie. This work was delayed 
pending solution of the flood problem at and below 
the lower end of the Bayou Cocodrie Diversion 
Channel which would be aggravated by the 
improvements of Bayous Boeuf and Cocodrie. 

Section 87 of the Water Resources Development 
Act of 1974 authorized the enlargement of Bayou 
Courtableau from the town of Washington to the 
West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee, in lieu of 
construction of the previously authorized 
Washington-Courtableau Diversion Channel. 

Associated rights-of-ways and excavated material 
areas will be provided at Federal expense. This act 
also authorized construction of additional culverts 
through the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee 
to provide for the increased flow. Detailed planning 
was initiated in fiscal year 1976 and is presently 
continuing. 

The estimated total cost of the project as of 
30 June 1976 was $15,750,000, of which 
$15,550,000 is Federal. The Federal cost for the 
completed portion as authorized in 1941 is 
$3,423,700. The project when completed will reduce 
flood damages over an area of 61,700 acres. The 
cumulative benefits consisting of flood damages 
prevented as of 30 June 1976 are estimated at 
$2,980,000. The Red River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou 
Boeuf Levee District is responsible for maintenance 
and operation of all completed portions of the 
project except bridges for which owners are 
responsible. The uncompleted features of the project 
and alternatives to these features are being reviewed 
in the Bayous Rapides, Boeuf, and Cocodrie and 
outlets survey study (see page 122). 

EASTERN RAPIDES AND 

SOUTH-CENTRAL AVOYELLES 

PARISHES 

(New Orleans District) 

Flooding and poor drainage are serious problems 
in the Chatlin Lake, Choctaw Bayou, and Bayou du 
Lac drainage areas along the south bank of Red River 
from Alexandria to the Red River backwater area 



41 



J- 






-f 



4 



7 



u 



7 



/ 



/' 



in 

z 
o 



/ 



120 



< 100 






*6 



/.' 



/' 



^ 



LEGEND 

Mississippi River, Baton Rouge lo 
Gulf of Mexico 

_ Mississippi River, Cairo, III , to 
Baton Rouge 



Atchafalaya River 



I960 1962 



1964 1966 



1970 1972 



1974 1976 



YEAR 

TRAFFIC ON MAJOR WATERWAYS 




p 
w 
o 
oa 

P 
O 

>- 
< 
« 

z 

o 

H 

z 

w 
§ 

O 

w 

S3 

Q 
< 

2 

H 

O) 

P 
Q 
Z 



and, to a lesser extent, along Bayou des Glaises and 
the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee. About 
206,000 acres in this area are subject to flooding. 

In this primarily agricultural area, major crops 
include soybeans, pasture, cotton, and corn, while 
rice and sugarcane play a less important role. The 
Corps of Engineers and the U. S. Soil Conservation 
Service have coordinated their studies in an effort 
to develop a combination of flood control and 
drainage improvements that will result in the greatest 
benefits in the form of flood damages prevented and 
increased crop yield. 

Authorized by the Flood Control Act of 
December 1970, the work to be done by the Corps 
consists primarily of enlargement of the existing 
channels of Chatlin Lake Canal, Bayou du Lac, Bayou 
des Glaises, with a new land cut to the Bayou des 
Glaises Diversion Channel, and the West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee borrow pit to the vicinity of 
U. S. Highway 190; diversion of the borrow pit flows 
into the floodway; an outlet channel into the 
Atchafalaya Basin Floodway; a control structure in 
the borrow pit; and an excavated material bank levee 



along the west side of the enlarged West Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee borrow pit from U. S. 
Highway 190 to vicinity of Palmetto; rectification of 
drainage intercepted by excavated material bank 
levees; and Federal acquisition of the Lake Pearl 
area. 

Several features of this project will help 
maintain and enhance existing fish and wildlife and 
recreational use within the area. Lake Pearl will be 
turned over to the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission for management. An overflow weir will 
be constructed at the eastern edge of the lake to 
generally maintain existing low-water conditions for 
commercial crawfish production. Other features of 
the project will include such improvements as weirs 
to maintain fish and wildlife production and a 
boat-launching facility and access channel to offset 
loss of existing access to the highway from camps 
along the borrow pit and Bayou Courtableau. 

Cost of Corps of Engineers work is estimated 
at $31,900,000 and non-Federal cost at $2,210,000. 
Postauthorization studies are under way and 
scheduled for completion in 1979. 



LOWER ATCHAFALAYA RIVER BASIN PROJECTS 



Two navigation projects and one hurricane 
protection project, located in the Lower Atchafalaya 
River Basin, have been authorized. These projects, 
described below, are not a part of the MR&T project. 

ATCHAFALAYA RIVER AND 

BAYOUS CHENE, BOEUF, 

AND BLACK 

(New Orleans District) 

Now being constructed, this waterway will 
afford transportation for large offshore drilling 
equipment being built by industries in the area and 
for personnel and equipment servicing offshore 
drilling operations. 

As authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 
1968, a channel will be constructed from the vicinity 



of U. S. Highway 90 at Bayou Boeuf to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The channel will follow a route along 
reaches of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and Bayou 
Chene, through the Avoca Island-Cutoff Bayou 
drainage channel to the Lower Atchafalaya River, and 
from there through the existing project across the 
Atchafalaya Bay to the 20-foot depth contour in the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

The channel will be 20 feet deep with a bottom 
width of 400 feet, except in Bayou Boeuf where 
industrial development on both sides of the bayou 
will necessitate a 300-foot-wide channel. A 20- by 
400-foot channel will also be constructed from the 
major shipyard on Bayou Black at U. S. Highway 
90 through the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Bayou 
Chene. 

Estimated cost of the project is $20,313,000 



44 



Federal, including $13,000 for navigation aids, and 
$1,790,000 non- Federal. Construction was initiated 
in April 1 974 on the bay and Gulf reaches and was 
completed in December 1974. Construction is 
scheduled to begin in April 1977 on the reach from 
Bayou Black to Bayou Chene and is scheduled to be 
completed in May 1979. 

ATCHAFALAYA RIVER, MORGAN 

CITY TO GULF OF MEXICO 

(New Orleans District) 

Prior to 1954, traffic on the waterway consisted 
primarily of shells and averaged less than 500,000 
tons per year. Since that time, however, the 
burgeoning offshore oil industry has expanded traffic 
in dramatic fashion. Average annual traffic for the 
period 1971-1975 was 4,181,470 tons. 

Authorized by the River and Harbor Act of June 
1910, this project consists of a 20- by 200-foot 
channel approximately 16 miles long from the 
20-foot depth contour in Atchafalaya Bay to the 
same contour in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Traffic sufficient to warrant maintenance to 
current project dimensions did not immediately 
develop. Maintenance dredging provided a 10- by 
100-foot channel in 1939, 1947, and 1948; a 14- by 
125-foot channel in 1957 and 1958; a 16- by 
200-foot channel in 1962-1966; and a 20- by 
200-foot channel in 1974. Total costs have been 



$501,963 for construction and $7,516,152 for 
maintenance to date. The project will be superseded 
by the Atchafalaya River and Bayous Chene, Boeuf, 
and Black project when completed. 

However, in the interim the channel was 
modified to dimensions of 20 by 400 feet in 1974 
under the new project. Total cost for maintenance 
of the modified project to date is $1,692,113. 

MORGAN CITY AND VICINITY 
HURRICANE PROTECTION 

(New Orleans District) 

Features of this project include the construction 
of 9.2 miles of new levees, enlargement of 
21.6 miles of existing levees, construction of 
flap-gated drainage structures and a floodgate, and 
alteration of 5 existing pumping stations and 11 
drainage culverts. 

The purpose of the project is to provide 
hurricane flood protection for developed residential, 
industrial, and commercial areas extending from the 
vicinity of Morgan City to the Charenton Drainage 
and Navigation Canal. The total value of 
improvements to be protected by the project is 
estimated at $70,000,000. Estimated first cost is 
$23,000,000 of which $14,900,000 is Federal and 
$8,100,000 is to be borne by non- Federal interests. 
The project has been delayed because of right-of-way 
problems. 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 
(Public Law 90-448) and Flood Disaster Protection 
Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which are 
discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the Corps 
of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies for 
HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed or 
are under way in the Atchafalaya River Basin are 



listed below. 



Study Area 



Completed: 
Under way: 



None 

Berwick 
Melville 
Morgan City 
Patterson 
Simmesport 



45 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



ATCHAFALAYA BASIN (WATER 
AND LAND RESOURCES) 

(New Orleans District) 

A comprehensive study of the Atchafalaya Basin 
was initiated in 1968. The purpose of the study is 
to develop a comprehensive plan for the management 
and preservation of water and related land resources 
in the basin. Measures under consideration include 
modifications, extensions, additions, and operational 
changes in existing flood control systems. A 
completion date for the study has not yet been 
determined. An interim report to consider continued 
development of the Atchafalaya main channel and 
other multipurpose features for flood control and 
environmental development is scheduled for 
completion in 1979. 

BERWICK LOCK, ATCHAFALAYA 
RIVER BASIN 

(New Orleans District) 

The study will determine whether the 
replacement of Berwick Lock in the West Atchafalaya 



Basin protection levee, St. Mary Parish, by a larger 
lock is justified in the interest of flood control, 
navigation, drainage, and other allied purposes. The 
study was initiated in 1976 and is scheduled for 
completion in 1980. 

CATAHOULA-CHARENTON AREA 
(New Orleans District) 

This study was initiated in 1968 to determine 
the advisability of providing a navigation channel in 
the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway along the levee from 
the vicinity of Catahoula to Grand Bayou and a 
navigation channel from Lake Dauterive to Bayou 
Teche via Lake Fausse Pointe and the Charenton 
Drainage and Navigation Canal. A completion date 
for the study has not yet been determined. 



46 



OUACHITA RIVER BASIN 









M-'it^ i^L. 







ARKANSAS 



ARKA NS AS 




Alexandria ^ 




10 

U B U 



SCALE OF MILES 

10 20 



30 

=1 



OUACHITA RIVER BASIN 






OUACHITA RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



This basin is that area in Louisiana between the 
Tensas River Basin and the North Bank Red River 
backwater levees. Drainage from the upper basin 
originates in Arkansas. Varied improvements for 
navigation and flood control have been constructed 



and other features are under construction and 
authorized, primarily under the MR&T project. The 
primary feature in the basin is the development of 
a 9-foot navigation project to Camden, Arkansas. 
Separate features in Louisiana are described below. 



Projects 



OUACHITA AND BLACK RIVERS 

(9-FOOT NAVIGATION PROJECT), 

ARKANSAS AND LOUISIANA 

(Vicksburg District) 

Improvement of this waterway was first 
authorized in 1871. Work on the original project was 
completed in 1926, and provided a navigable depth 
of 6-1/2 feet from the mouth of Black River in 
Louisiana to Camden, Arkansas, a distance of 351 
miles. 

Total costs of the 6-1/2-foot project have been 
$5,248,600 for construction. Construction of the 
portion of the waterway in Louisiana cost 
approximately $3,418,300. 

The River and Harbor Acts of 1950 and 1960 
modified the original project to increase the navigable 
depth from the present 6-1/2 to 9 feet beginning at 
the mouth of Red River and extending to Camden, 
Arkansas, on the Ouachita River. The purpose of the 
current navigation project is to provide a 9-foot-depth 
channel in order to permit the free interchange of 
river traffic between the Mississippi and Ouachita 



Rivers. In addition, the project will provide 
improvements to increase area recreational 
opportunities and improve the fish and wildlife 
environment. 

Construction of four new locks and dams will 
replace the six obsolete structures. Improvements will 
include channel rectification and dredging as 
necessary. The two new locks and dams in Louisiana 
are complete, one near Jonesville and the other at 
Columbia. Each of the new locks is 84 feet wide and 
600 feet long and impounds a slack-water pool 
approximately 100 miles long. The Jonesville and 
Columbia locks and dams were placed in operation 
in June 1972 and provide a 9-foot navigation channel 
from the mouth of Red River to Old Lock and Dam 
No. 6 near Felsenthal, Arkansas, upstream from the 
Louisiana- Arkansas State line. For information on the 
two new locks and dams in Arkansas, see the 
Arkansas Water Resources Development pamphlet. 

Average annual traffic for the Ouachita-Black 
waterway was 830,000 tons in the 1971-1975 
period. Traffic in 1975 was estimated at 
1,030,000 tons. 



49 



In connection with the Jonesville lock and dam, 
the channel has been completed for the diversion of 
flows from Catahoula Lake into Black River 
downstream from the lock and dam. The structure 
for control of flows from Catahoula Lake to the 
diversion channel has been placed in operation. These 
features allow for regulation of stages in the lake to 
permit its continued use as a waterfowl refuge and 
resting and feeding area for migratory waterfowl. 
Construction of the closure dam on Little River is 
also complete. Authorization of the Columbia lock 
and dam includes acquisition of 18,000 acres of land 
for use as a national fish and wildlife refuge along 
Bayou D'Arbonne. 

Recreation facilities including boat launching 
ramps, picnic tables, and camping sites have been 
provided by the Corps of Engineers. These facilities, 
completed in 1973, are located adjacent to the 
Columbia and Jonesville lock and dam pools. 

The total Federal cost of this project 
modification as of 30 June 1976 is estimated to be 
$184,000,000. Estimated non-Federal costs are 
$5,187,000. 

OUACHITA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, 

ARKANSAS AND LOUISIANA 

(Vicksburg District) 

Authorized by the Flood Control and River and 
Harbor Act of 1950, this project is a comprehensive 
plan for flood control, power, and other purposes 
for the Ouachita River and Tributaries. The project 
provides varying degrees of flood control to a large 
area in the Ouachita River Basin. Protection to 
Monroe, West Monroe, Columbia, and Bawcomville, 
Louisiana, and Calion, Arkansas, is one of the 
important features of the project. A booklet, Water 
Resources Development in Arkansas, discusses the 
features located in that State. The flood control 
features in Louisiana are described in the following 
paragraphs. 

The Ouachita River levees extend from Bastrop 
along the south bank of Bayou Bartholomew and the 
east bank of the Ouachita River to the vicinity of 
Sandy Bayou approximately 74 miles below the city 



of Monroe. Included in the Ouachita le'vee work were 
protection levees and other improvements for 
Monroe, West Monroe, Bawcomville, and Columbia, 
Louisiana. The levee work is complete except for a 
5.7-mile extension of the levee to Sandy Bayou, and 
raising low reaches of the levee to the approved grade 
and construction of gravel road thereon. A gravel 
road has been completed on 12.9 miles of the levee 
and raising of 12.5 miles of low reaches of the levee 
was initiated in August 1974. Total cost of the levee 
and protection works for the various cities was 
$3,911,000 ($3,405,000 Federal; $325,000 PL-99 
funds; and $181,000 non-Federal). 

The levee at Monroe includes 1.6 miles of 
floodwall, with a 1,750- foot gap near the center. The 
Federal cost of the floodwall, excluding the gap in 
the floodwall, was $573,000. Closure of the 
1,750- foot gap was authorized by the Flood Control 
Act of 1966. Federal cost of the gap closure was 
$2,420,000. The non-Federal cost was $206,000. 

On the west bank of the Ouachita River there 
are loop levees around the towns of West Monroe, 
Bawcomville, and Columbia. 

The West Monroe protection includes 5.5 miles 
of levee and 1.6 miles of floodwall and was 
constructed at a Federal cost of $548,895. 

The local protection at Columbia consists of 
1.3 miles of levee with appurtenant drainage 
structures, an outfall sewer with drainage works, 
floodgates, and a storm sewer and pumping plant. 
Federal cost of the project, which was completed in 
1941, was $204,740. Total flood damages prevented 
amount to $4,253,000. 

Protection for Bawcomville consists of a loop 
levee, pumping plant, floodgates, and appurtenant 
ditches. This construction cost $253,323, of which 
$168,882 was Federal cost and $84,441 was 
non-Federal cost. Flood damages prevented by this 
project total approximately $83,599,000. 

Estimated cost of the additional work 
(extension to Sandy Bayou, etc.) is $8,012,000, of 
which $7,990,000 is Federal. 

Flood damages prevented by the entire Ouachita 
River and Tributaries project to date amount to 
about $601,190,000. 



50 




JONESVILLE LOCK AND DAM, OUACHITA-BLACK RIVER 
NAVIGATION PROJECT 



BAYOU BARTHOLOMEW AND 

TRIBUTARIES, ARKANSAS 

AND LOUISIANA 

(Vicksburg District) 

This stream, originating near Pine Bluff, 
Arkansas, flows through southeast Arkansas and 
northeast Louisiana, and empties into the Ouachita 
River just north of Sterlington, Louisiana. Its 
drainage area is adjacent to the Boeuf and Tensas 
Rivers and Bayou Macon Basin, and during high- water 
stages some interchange of flow between the two 
basins occurs at several locations. 

Features of the original authorization (River and 
Harbor Act of 1950) provide for channel 
improvement and closure of the high-water outlets 
on the main stem of Bayou Bartholomew, 
enlargement of Deep Bayou, and clearing and 
enlargement of Overflow Creek. 

The Flood Control Act of 1966 amended the 



original authorization by adding the construction of 
10 flood retention lakes in the western tributaries 
of Bayou Bartholomew in Arkansas and six local 
levee units along the main stem in Louisiana for flood 
protection. The channel improvement and six local 
levee features of the project have been deferred. Also 
included in the amendment was an authorization for 
3,200 acres of land for mitigation of fishery and 
wildlife losses. 

The project purpose is to provide for a reduction 
of flooding on agricultural lands in Arkansas and 
Louisiana, improvement in the areas' recreational 
opportunities, and improvement in fish and wildlife 
environment. 

The Federal cost of the proposed improvements, 
including that for deferred work is estimated at 
$2,100,000. Non-Federal cost is $1,380,000. Precon- 
struction planning and design for this project has been 
deferred until completion of the Pine Bluff Urban 
Study, Arkansas. (See Arkansas State pamphlet.) 



51 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



BLACK BAYOU 
(Vicksburg District) 

A special flood hazard information report was 
prepared at the request of HUD, which relates to the 
flood situation along Black Bayou in West Monroe. 
Lands affected are residential and commercial. The 
study and report were completed in November 1973. 

MONROE 
(Vicksburg District) 

A flood plain information report was prepared 
for the city of Monroe and Ouachita Parish for lands 
along 3 1 miles of the Ouachita River in the vicinity 
of Monroe, and for lands along Youngs Bayou, 



Chauvin Bayou, and Bayou Lafourche. Lands 
affected are residential, agricultural, and wooded. The 
report was completed and published in June 1970 
at a cost of $24,933. 

WEST MONROE 
(Vicksburg District) 

A flood plain information report was prepared 
for the city of West Monroe and Ouachita Parish for 
lands along 32 miles of the Ouachita River in the 
vicinity of West Monroe. This study and report 
directed attention to Ouachita River backwater 
flooding of residential and presently underdeveloped 
lands. The report was completed and published in 
November 1968 at a cost of $11,362. 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Flood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 
Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Ouachita River Basin are 



listed below. 



Study Area 



Completed: 
Under way: 



None 

Caldwell Parish 
Columbia 
Monroe 

Ouachita Parish 
West Monroe 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



OUACHITA RIVER BASIN 
(Vicksburg District) 

The study encompasses the entire Ouachita 
River Basin in Arkansas and Louisiana, an area of 
20,000 square miles. This is to be a comprehensive 
study of all the water resources needs and problems. 
Water resources needs and problems to be considered 



consist of: water supply and increased water quality; 
channel improvements and bank stabilization; 
additional multiple- purpose dams; navigation and 
harbor facilities; increased hydroelectric power; 
protection and propagation of fish and wildlife; and 
promotion of outdoor recreation through construc- 
tion of additional facilities. The study was initiated 
in 1976 and is scheduled for completion in 1981. 



52 



TENSAS RIVER BASIN 



ARKANSAS 





SCALE OF MILES 



10 o 



10 



20 



30 



TENSAS RIVER BASIN 



TENSAS RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



The Tensas River Basin, located in southeast 
Arkansas and northeast Louisiana, is an extensive 
lowland area that lies to the west of the Mississippi 
River. The upper part of the area begins just above 
Gould, Arkansas, and extends southward from the 
Arkansas River to the lower limits of the Red River 
backwater area in Avoyelles Parish (near Simmesport, 
Louisiana). The basin consists of two parts, the upper 
section is affected by headwater flooding from the 
Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and tributaries, and the 
lower section is affected by backwater flooding from 
the Mississippi and Red Rivers. The upper part is 
relatively narrow at the northern extremity and 
gradually widens to about 65 miles at the latitude 
of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Further south, near Sicily 
Island, Louisiana, the area constricts to a width of 
about 20 miles then widens somewhat in the lower 



section east of Catahoula Lake. 

The Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and Bayou Macon 
are contiguous and embrace that part of the alluvial 
valley of the Mississippi River lying south of the 
Arkansas River, west of the Mississippi River, north 
of the Red River backwater area, and east of the 
Ouachita River and Bayou Bartholomew. 

The Red River backwater area extends from the 
Mississippi River about 40 miles westward to the hills 
by Catahoula Lake, and from the head of the 
Atchafalaya Basin Floodway (near Simmesport), and 
the south bank levee of Red River, about 100 miles 
northward and upstream on the Ouachita-Black 
and Tensas Rivers and their tributaries to the 
limits of backwater overflow, the northernmost 
limit being in the general latitude of Monroe, 
Louisiana. 



Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and Tributaries 
Headwater Area 

PROJECTS 



TENSAS BASIN, BOEUF AND TENSAS 

RIVERS AND TRIBUTARIES, 

ARKANSAS AND LOUISIANA 

(Vicksburg District) 

This project is located in the States of Arkansas 
and Louisiana in the large alluvial flood plain of the 
Mississippi River south of the Arkansas River and 
between the Mississippi River on the east and high 



ground on the west and above the upper limits of 
the backwater area on the south. The area is 
protected from Arkansas and Mississippi River floods 
by the south bank Arkansas River levees and the west 
bank Mississippi River levees. 

The purpose of the project is to provide a high 
degree of flood protection against headwater floods 
and to improve recreational opportunities in Lake 
Chicot in Arkansas (see Arkansas State pamphlet). 



55 




WEIR ON BOEUF RIVER 



Authorization of the project was from the Flood 
Control Act of 1944, amended by the Flood Control 
Act of 1946, 1950, 1958, 1962, 1965, and 1968. 

Works of improvement constructed to date in 
both states include: channel clearing, snagging, 
realignment, and enlargement. Upon completion of 
the project, a total of 922,000 acres (including Lake 
Chicot) will be substantially benefited by the flood 
protection provided. 

Works on the Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and their 
major tributaries was near completion in the late 



1950's when the entire project was reviewed to 
ascertain if additional work was needed. Recent 
developments in the basin result in a need for 
additional channel work. 

The estimated total cost of this project is 
$145,323,000 ($144,900,000 Federal cost) which 
includes costs for the Lake Chicot Pumping Plant and 
associated work. Total cost, excluding the pumping 
plant and other features at Lake Chicot is estimated 
at $91,000,000. Estimated flood damages prevented 
by this project to date are $46,623,000. 



SMALL PROJECTS 



BIG CHOCTAW BAYOU 
(Vicksburg District) 

This project consists of channel improvements 
between the mouth of the bayou and Mile 35, to 
afford an outiet for a system of drainage 
improvements constructed by local interests. 



Authorization for the work was by the Flood Control 
Act of 1948. Federal cost for the project, which was 
completed in November 1965, was $248,823. 
Non-Federal interests furnished the rights-of-way and 
constructed the lower 17.12 miles of the project. 
Maintenance of the project is the responsibility of 
the Tensas Parish Police Jury. 



56 



GRANTS CANAL (FILLING) 

(Vicksburg District) 

During the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant 
had his troops excavate a short canal in the town 
of Lake Providence to allow Union gunboats to 
bypass Confederate fortifications at Vicksburg by 



traveling from the Mississippi into Lake Providence 
and down the Tensas River and crossing over to 
St. Joseph, Louisiana, on the Mississippi River. In 
1953, a remaining segment of the canal was filled at a 
project cost of $7,070, returning the area to its natu- 
ral state. This work was accomplished under author- 
ity of the Flood Control Acts of 1928 and 1950. 



FLOOD PLAIN INFORMATION REPORTS 



RAYVILLE 

(Vicksburg District) 



WINNSBORO 
(Vicksburg District) 



A flood plain information report is being 
prepared for the town of Rayville and Richland 
Parish, Louisiana. The report will provide flood plain 
information on lands along Burns Bayou and 
tributaries, Little Creek, and a tributary of Bee 
Bayou. Residential and agricultural lands are subject 
to flooding. This report is scheduled for completion 
in early 1977. 



A flood plain information report was to be 
prepared for the town of Winnsboro and Franklin 
Parish. The report would have provided flood plain 
information on lands along Turkey Creek, Ash 
Slough, and Pine Bayou in the vicinity of Winnsboro. 
However, in lieu of the flood plain information 
report, a flood insurance study for the town of 
Winnsboro and a special flood hazard information 
report covering the surrounding areas have been 
initiated. These reports are scheduled for completion 
in 1978. 



FLOOD INSURANCE STUDIES 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Rood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 
Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Tensas River Basin, Boeuf 
and Tensas Rivers and tributaries headwater area, are 



listed below. 



Study Area 



Completed: None 

Under -Way: 

Clayton 

Concordia Parish 
Ferriday 
Ridgecrest 



Tensas Parish 

Vidalia 

Winnsboro 



SURVEYS AUTHORIZED OR UNDER WAY 



WALNUT-ROUNDAWAY BAYOU 

(Vicksburg District) 

This study is to determine an economical 



method of providing flows in the bayou, so that 
water will be available for irrigation, recreation, 
industry, municipal, and other uses. The study has 
not yet been funded. 



57 



Red River Backwater Area 



PROJECTS 



TENSAS BASIN, RED RIVER 
BACKWATER AREA 

(Vicksburg District) 

Early inhabitants of the Red River backwater 
area lived and cultivated land along the high ridges, 
most of which were located near the rivers and 
streams of the area. Early settlers soon found it 
necessary to construct levees and other flood control 
devices to provide protection from intermediate 
frequency floods. Local and State public funds were 
later used to subsidize this work. 

The Flood Control Act of 1928, which was later 
amended by the Flood Control Acts of 1941 and 
1965, authorized the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
to construct levees and other improvements in the 
backwater area. This initial and subsequent 
authorization provides for five major levee projects 
and several smaller projects. 

The purpose of the project is to protect large 
areas from the effects of backwater flooding from 
the Mississippi, Red, Ouachita, and Black Rivers. The 
project provides protection to the area from lesser 
floods, but these lands must remain subject to use 
for storage of fldodwaters during a Mississippi River 
Project Flood. A total of 403,000 acres will be 
substantially benefited by the project. 

The five major projects affect the following 
areas: Tensas-Cocodrie area, Larto Lake to Jonesville 
area, Sicily Island area, below Red River area, and 
the Harrisonburg to Little River area (Bushley 
Bayou). 

The Tensas-Cocodrie levee and associated 
improvements have been completed for a number of 
years and have been providing flood protection to 
373,000 acres of Concordia Parish, located in 
east-central Louisiana. However, a pumping plant has 
been authorized for the area to evacuate rainfall from 
the leveed area sump when the gravity drainage 



structure is closed. Channel excavation, which is the 
initial item of construction associated with 
installation of the pumping plant, is scheduled to 
begin in fiscal year 1977. Flooding experienced in 
1973 necessitated a redesign of levee grades in the 
Red River backwater area. New levee grades will 
require enlargement of the Tensas-Cocodrie levee 
system. This work is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 
1977. Existing improvements have prevented flood 
damages estimated at $31,982,000. Estimated total 
cost for the Tensas-Cocodrie Pumping Plant and 
associated works is $34,955,000. 

Levees and associated improvements, which are 
currently under construction, will protect 
104,300 acres within the Larto Lake to Jonesville 
area (located north of the Catahoula Lake Diversion 
Canal). This work is scheduled for completion in 
fiscal year 1977. Water resource improvements for 
the area just south of the diversion canal are still 
in the planning stage. 

In the Harrisonburg to Little River area 
(northwest of Jonesville, Louisiana), a levee on the 
west bank of the Ouachita River was constructed to 
an interim grade in 1960. This levee work consisted 
of 14 segments constructed between reaches of high 
ground over a total length of about 15 miles. The 
levee and interior drainage ditches provide only 
partial protection to the area from intermediate 
headwater floods on the Ouachita River. Total cost 
of the work amounted to $329,282. Due to the 
continuing flood problems in this area, another 
project (Bushley Bayou) was authorized for detailed 
planning under the Water Resources Development 
Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-251). Thus, work 
completed in this area will become a part of the 
Bushley Bayou project. Authorized improvements for 
the Bushley Bayou project consist of a 1,500-cubic- 
feet-per-second pumping plant combined with a 
gravity drainage structure, floodgate, and channel 



58 



improvements. Fish and wildlife mitigation features 
consist of a weir, water management control 
structures, a 50-cubic-feet-per-second pumping plant, 
and acquisition of 3,000 acres of woodlands. 
Estimated costs for the Bushley Bayou project are 
$23,600,000. The major concern with the authorized 
plan is that its installation would raise flood stages 
in unprotected upstream areas along the Ouachita 
River. For this reason, alternatives are being 
considered that would provide protection to portions 
of the Bushley Bayou area without adversely 
affecting stages in other areas. Planning is concerned 
with developing a project which would be acceptable 
to local and environmental interests and which would 
meet the objectives of national policy. 

Levees and other works of improvement for the 
Sicily Island area (east of Harrisonburg) and the 
below Red River area (east of Marksville and north 
and west of Simmesport, below Red River) are 
authorized for various stages of planning. Plans will 
be developed which will be acceptable to local and 
environmental interests and meet the objectives of 
national policy. 

The total estimated cost for the Red River 
backwater project, excluding the Bushley Bayou 
project, is $126,555,000. 



JONESVILLE 

(Vicksburg District) 

The town of Jonesville, Louisiana, in Catahoula 
Parish, is located at the hub of the Red River 
backwater area. Jonesville is located at the junction 
of Little and Black Rivers, near the confluence of 
the Ouachita, Tensas, and Little Rivers which form 
the Black River. Protection of the town from 
frequent floods was a matter of great concern to its 
residents and procedures leading to Federal 
participation in building flood protection works were 
initiated. Authorization for the Jonesville project was 
provided by the Flood Control Acts of 1936 and 
1950. The project consists of levees, floodwalls, two 
surface drainage structures, a storm sewer, a storm 
drainage pumping plant, and an outlet ditch. 

The project provides flood protection to the 
town from headwater floods on the Ouachita-Black 
Rivers and backwater flooding from the Mississippi 
and Red Rivers. 

Completed in October 1952, the total costs of 
the improvements at Jonesville were $645,900, 
including $100,000 contributed by local interests. 

Estimated flood damages prevented by this 
project to date are $6,683,000. 



FLOOD PLAIN INFORMATION REPORTS 



CONCORDIA PARISH 

(Vicksburg District) 

A special flood hazard information report was 
prepared for Concordia Parish at the request of 
numerous Federal, State, and local agencies. The 
parish is affected by floodwaters of the Mississippi 



River, Red River, and their tributaries, and is 
comprised largely of the Tensas-Cocodrie area (often 
referred to as the Red River backwater area). 
Flooding occurs primarily on residential and 
agricultural lands. The study and report were 
completed in July 1973. 



SURVEYS AUTHORIZED OR UNDER WAY 



LARTO LAKE-SALINE LAKE 

(Vicksburg District) 

This study is to determine the feasibility of 



developing a comprehensive plan for the management 
and preservation of water and related land resources 
of the Larto Lake-Saline Lake area. The study has 
not yet been funded. 



59 



RED RIVER BASIN 



83 s4f: 





w 




arkansas 
louisFana 




SCALE OF MILES 
10 20 



30 

3 



RED RIVER BASIN 



RED RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



The Red River Basin in Louisiana above 
Alexandria, with its varied improvements for flood 
control, bank stabilization, and navigation, 
constitutes one of the best potential areas for future 
regional development. Many improvements have 
already been completed and many more are 
authorized and contemplated. A comprehensive basin 



study has been made and it is certain that in time 
the optimum development of the basin can be 
accomplished, thereby providing substantial 
improvement to the environment and essential 
impetus to the general economy of the entire region. 
Features completed and authorized are described in 
the following pages. 



Projects 



ARMISTEAD BANK PROTECTION 
(New Orleans District) 

In order to prevent further caving of the right 
bank of Red River above the Armistead-Coushatta 
highway bridge across Red River, a standard board 
revetment was constructed above the bridge in 1951 
and extended upstream in 1952 and in 1954 at a 
total cost of $380,289. Accomplished under the 
provisions of Section 14 of the Flood Control Act 
of 1946, this project protects about 4,800 linear feet 
of bank. Maintenance of the completed 
improvements is the responsibility of the Red 
River-Bayou Pierre Levee and Drainage District. 

BAYOU NICHOLAS AND 

COUSHATTA 

(New Orleans District) 

The improvement consists of a ring levee for the 
protection of Coushatta. The levee extends from the 



hills to the high bank along Red River about one-half 
mile upstream from the U. S. Highway 84 bridge. 
A second levee commences about one-half mile below 
the bridge and continues downstream along the river 
for 0.5 mile and then easterly to the Kansas City 
Southern Railway tracks. 

Outlet for the local drainage is through a gated 
culvert in each levee. This project was authorized 
under Section 205, Flood Control Act of 1948. 
Completed in June 1964, the project cost the Federal 
Government $70,700. Maintenance of the completed 
improvements is the responsibility of the town of 
Coushatta. 

BAYOU RAPIDES 

(New Orleans District) 

This project, authorized under Section 205 of 
the Flood Control Act of 1948, consists of 22.6 miles 
of snagging and clearing and chemical treatment of 
the stumps. Work was completed in December 1951 



63 



at a cost of $95,179. Cumulative benefits from flood 
damage prevented through June 1976 are estimated 
at $197,000. Maintenance is the responsibility of the 
Red River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou Boeuf Levee 
District. 

BLACK BAYOU-PINE 
ISLAND AREA 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized under Section 205 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1948, this project consists of about 
7 miles of levees along the right bank of Black Bayou 
and a drainage structure for discharge of interior 
runoff. The project provides protection for the Pine 
Island oil field against floods on Twelvemile and 
Black Bayous having a frequency of about once in 
25 years. The project was completed in July 1963 
at an estimated Federal cost of $336,063. 
Maintenance of the completed project is the 
responsibility of the Caddo Levee District. 
Cumulative benefits attributable to the project 
through June 1976 are $1,750,000. 

A crevasse approximately 1,500 feet above the 
levee's downstream terminus occurred during heavy 
rains in April 1966, resulting in flooding of a large 
portion of the oil field which it protects. The crevasse 
occurred without warning and no preventive work 
could be accomplished. The levee was repaired at a 
cost of about $28,000. 

BRUSH BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 

Under the authority of Section 205 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1948, as amended, a plan has been 
developed for channel enlargement and realignment 
of this stream between Mile 1.20 and Mile 7.42, in 
combination with nonstructural measures for flood 
plain management. Construction of the project was 
initiated in November 1976 and is scheduled for 
completion in 1978. The Federal cost of the project 
is $1,000,000 and the non- Federal cost is 
$2,020,000. 



COLFAX, GRANT PARISH 

(New Orleans District) 

The Colfax Cutoff was made to stop caving 
banks along Red River and protect the town of 
Colfax. This emergency channel improvement was 
completed in 1936 at a cost of $148,282 and was 
enlarged in 1939 at a cost of $70,348. 

COUSHATTA BANK PROTECTION 

(New Orleans District) 

The north approach to the Armistead-Coushatta 
highway bridge is protected by 1,136 linear feet of 
standard board revetment on the left bank of Red 
River. Constructed in 1950 under Section 14, Flood 
Control Act of 1946, this improvement cost $90,276, 
with local interests contributing $40,276 and the 
Federal Government contributing $50,000. 

CYPRESS BAYOU AND WATERWAY 
BETWEEN JEFFERSON, TEXAS, 
AND SHREVEPORT, LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans District) 

This project provides for removing obstructions, 
dredging, and straightening the channel from 
Jefferson, Texas, to Shreveport, Louisiana, a distance 
of 66 miles; and the construction of a dam, without 
a lock, at the foot of Caddo Lake. The project was 
completed in 1914 at a cost of $202,817. A new 
dam has been built to replace the original one (see 
Caddo Lake, Replacement of Dam, page 65). 

Privately owned except for Caddo Lake State 
Park, the 170-mile shoreline of Cypress Bayou offers 
excellent recreational opportunities. Commercial 
camps operating along the shoreline provide cabins, 
boats, fishing, hunting, and other recreational 
facilities. Owners of hundreds of homes and private 
camps also take advantage of recreational 
opportunities along the waterway. 

Visitors to the waterway number from 500,000 
to 1,000,000 annually. Variation is due to heavy 
aquatic vegetation which is especially bad in 



64 



low-water years, sometimes completely covering large 
areas of Caddo Lake. The 26,800-acre lake and 
Cypress Bayou below Jefferson have an average depth 
of 4.8 feet. Average annual traffic on the waterway 
from 1969-1973 was 109 tons, all of which was 
above the dam; no commerce has been reported 
since 1973. 

The project was also modified by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1968, to become part of the Red River 
Waterway project (see page 75). 

CADDO LAKE, REPLACEMENT 

OF DAM 

(New Orleans District) 



completed in 1950 at a cost of $104,632. 

GAHAGAN BEND 

(New Orleans District) 

Bank protection works under this project consist 
of three pile dikes in Red River near the town of 
Gahagan to protect the flood control levee and avoid 
relocating a paved highway and main-line railroad. 
The original work (done under the provisions of 
Section 14 of the Flood Control Act of 1946) was 
completed in 1948 and strengthened in 1951 at a 
cost of $201,966. It protects approximately 2,700 
linear feet of bank. 



Replacement of the existing dam was authorized 
by the Flood Control Act of October 1965. The new 
dam, located immediately downstream of the existing 
structure, has the same flow characteristics as the 
existing dam. 

Continued existence of Caddo Lake which is 
used for municipal and industrial water supply and 
recreation is now ensured. Completed in June 1971, 
the dam consists of 2,400 linear feet of concrete wall, 
with the central 860 feet of crest at elevation 168.5 
feet mean sea level and the remaining 1,540 feet at 
170.5 feet mean sea level. An earth embankment 
1,200 feet long ties the concrete dam to the hill line 
at one end; at the opposite end, the concrete dam 
abuts the hill line. 

The Federal cost of the project as of 30 June 
1976 was $3,586,000. The non-Federal cost was 
$28,000. The Water Resources Development Act of 
1976 transferred the operation and maintenance of 
the dam from a local to a Federal responsibility. 

FIRE POINT, CUTOFF AND 

REVETMENT 

(New Orleans District) 

This emergency channel improvement project in 
Caddo Parish near Benton was completed in 1936 
at a cost of $124,178. The construction of 1,650 
linear feet of board revetment at this location was 



LUCAS BEND 
(New Orleans District) 

Bank protection works on Red River under this 
project consist of articulated concrete mattresses, 4- 
by 4-foot steel fascine boxes placed on dredged sand 
fill, and pile dikes at Lucas Bend about 9 miles below 
the city of Shreveport. Authorized under Section 14 
of the Flood Control Act of 1948, this project 
protects the flood control levee and makes 
unnecessary the relocation of the main line of the 
Texas and Pacific Railroad, a paved highway, and a 
12-inch gas pipeline. Approximately 4,750 linear feet 
of bank have been protected at a cost of $641,676. 



MONCLA BRIDGE 
(New Orleans District) 

Protection for the left bank approach to the 
Louisiana State Highway 107 bridge over Red River 
at the town of Moncla is provided by 1,900 linear 
feet of standard board revetment. This bank 
protection work was completed in 1953 (under the 
provision of Section 14 of the Flood Control Act 
of 1946) at a cost of $117,671. The Federal 
Government contributed $50,000 and local interests 
contributed the balance. 



65 



OVERTON-RED RIVER 
WATERWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

This project was authorized in 1946 as a 
modification of the project "Red River Below 
Fulton, Arkansas," described on page 75. Under this 
modification a 9- by 1 00-foot navigation channel was 
to be constructed from the Mississippi River via Old 
and Red Rivers, for a distance of 31 miles, and then 
through a new land cut generally following existing 
streams along tire right bank of the Red River flood 
plain to a turning basin on Bayou Pierre at 
Shreveport. The project, which is about 205 miles 
long, would have nine locks, a pumping plant, and 
numerous control structures. 

Surveys and preliminary studies were suspended 
in 1961 because local interests would not agree to 
provide local cooperation for the project. The 
Louisiana constitution was amended in 1965 to 
authorize formation of the Red River Waterway 
District. This district furnished an acceptable act of 
assurance of local cooperation for the lower 31 miles 
of the waterway in October 1967. Planning was 
resumed in 1965 on that part of the project. 

Construction of the project, with channel 
dimensions of 9 by 200 feet, was initiated in June 
1968. Authorization of the Red River Waterway 
project eliminated the need for the Overton-Red 
River Waterway above Mile 3 1 . For this reason, that 
portion above Mile 31 was placed in an inactive 
status. See "Red River Waterway, Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas," page 75. Estimated 
Federal cost (30 June 1976) of construction of the 
lower 31 miles of the project is $21,200,000, of 
which $8,400,000 has been allotted. The non-Federal 
cost is $83,000. Construction of the lower 31 miles 
is scheduled for completion in December 1980. 

RED RIVER BELOW DENISON 

DAM, TEXAS, OKLAHOMA, 
ARKANSAS, AND LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans and Tulsa Districts) 

A comprehensive plan for flood control in the 
Red River Valley below Denison Dam was authorized 



by the Flood Control Act of 1946 and subsequent 
modifications. The plan provides for the construction 
of Boswell, Hugo, Pine Creek, Lukfata, and Broken 
Bow Reservoirs in Oklahoma; Millwood, DeQueen, 
Gillham, and Dierks Reservoirs in Arkansas; and 
Cooper Lake, Wright Patman Lake, and Lake O 1 the 
Pines in Texas. 

The project also includes enlarging and 
strengthening the Red River levee system; 
constructing channel stabilization and bank 
protective works where levee setbacks are impossible 
or uneconomical; constructing several local 
protection projects; and incorporating several 
previously authorized projects into the 
comprehensive plan. 

This project has been modified by the Red River 
Waterway project authorized by the River and Harbor 
Act of 1968, page 75. Because of the wide scope of 
the project, its various features are treated as separate 
projects, as listed in the table on page 67. Projects 
in Louisiana are discussed individually below. 

ALOHA-RIGOLETTE AREA, 
GRANT AND RAPIDES PARISHES 
(New Orleans District) 

" Aloha- Rigolette Area, Grant and Rapides 
Parishes" is a flood control project authorized in 
1941 as an extension of the previously authorized 
and completed project, "Grant Parish Below Colfax." 
These improvements are designed to prevent flooding 
of Colfax and fertile alluvial agricultural lands lying 
along the left bank of the Red River. Interior 
drainage improvements were also made. 

Included in the project are enlargement of 9.2 
miles of levee; construction of 12.1 miles of new 
levee, including closure of Bayou Darrow, to extend 
the levee to the hills on the left bank of Bayou 
Rigolette; a floodgate in Bayou Rigolette; diversion 
of Bayou Darrow to Saline Bayou; approximately 
31 miles of snagging and clearing in Bayou Rigolette, 
and Saline, Walden, and Dry Bayous; and the 
separation of the Bayou Darrow and Bayou Rigolette 
drainage areas by closure of the head of Bayou 
Darrow and adjacent sloughs. 

After completion of the levee system below 



66 



RED RIVER BELOW DENISON DAM-NEW AND INCORPORATED PROJECTS 



Feature 



New Projects 



Status 



Days Creek and Tributaries, Arkansas 

and Texas 
DeQueen Reservoir, Arkansas 
Dierks Reservoir, Arkansas 
Garland City, Arkansas 
Gillham Reservoir, Arkansas 
Maniece Bayou, Arkansas 
McKinney Bayou, Arkansas 

and Texas 
Millwood Reservoir, Arkansas 
Walnut Bayou, Arkansas 
Boswell Reservoir, Oklahoma 
Broken Bow Reservoir, Oklahoma 
Brown Creek, Oklahoma 
Hugo Reservoir, Oklahoma 
Lukfata Reservoir, Oklahoma 
Pine Creek Reservoir, Oklahoma 
Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas 
Lake 0' The Pines, Texas 
Wright Patman Dam and Lake, Texas 
Posten Bayou, Arkansas 
Caddo Dam Replacement, Louisiana 
Red River Levees and Bank Stabilization, Texas, 

Arkansas, and Louisiana 
Campti-Clarence Area, Louisiana 
East Point, Louisiana 
West Agurs Levee, Louisiana 



Authorized for Phase I AE&D plan- 
ning, see Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

Authorized for construction, 
see Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Oklahoma pamphlet 

See Texas pamphlet 

See Texas pamphlet 

See Texas pamphlet 

See Arkansas pamphlet 

Completed 

Under way 
Completed 
Completed 
Authorized for construction 



Incorporated Projects 

Hempstead County Levee District No. 1, Arkansas 

Bayou Bodcau and Tributaries, Louisiana 

Aloha-Rigolette Area, Grant and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana 

Bayou Bodcau, Red Chute, and Loggy Bayou, Louisiana 

Bodcau Lake, Louisiana 

Bayou Pierre in vicinity of Shreveport, Louisiana 

Bayou Pierre, Louisiana 

Colfax, Grant Parish, Louisiana 

Grant Parish Below Colfax, Louisiana 

Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana 

Pineville, Louisiana 

Red River in vicinity of Shreveport, Louisiana 

Red River Parish, Louisiana 

Saline Point, Louisiana 

Wallace Lake, Louisiana 



See Arkansas pamphlet 

Authorized 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 

Completed 



Note: The benefits accumulated to date for the completed and partially completed features of this project are shown 
elsewhere in this pamphlet and in similar pamphlets for the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. 



67 



Bayou Darrow, the most severe flood experienced 
was that of May 1953. Although heavy rainfall 
flooded a large part of the area, about 5,600 acres 
were protected from Red River overflow. About 
41,600 acres and 36,300 acres were protected from 
Red River overflow during the floods of April- June 
1957 and May 1958, respectively. 

The entire project was completed in 1956 at a 
total Federal cost of $1,653,237. Benefits from this 
project are inseparable from those of the companion 
project, "Grant Parish Below Colfax," since each 
provides partial protection for the same area. 
Cumulative benefits from the prevention of floods 
for the two projects (through June 1976) are 
$2,591,000. The project is maintained by the 19th 
Louisiana Levee District in Grant Parish and the Red 
River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou Boeuf Levee District 
in Rapides Parish. 



BAYOU BODCAU 
AND TRIBUTARIES 
(New Orleans District) 



also be constructed. Of the levee to be constructed 
on the west descending bank, approximately 8 miles 
are in place. 

A levee will also be constructed extending about 
32.1 miles from the lower end of the existing Red 
River levee in the vicinity of Ninock, southward along 
the Red River then northward along the right 
descending bank of Loggy Bayou, approximately 1 
mile above its mouth, thence along the right banks 
of Loggy Bayou, Flat River, Red Chute, and Cutoff 
Bayous, and tie into the existing Red River levee near 
Taylortown. 

Flat River channel will be enlarged from Cutoff 
Bayou to Cooper Bayou, a distance of 11.6 miles. 
Landside drainage, sump areas, drainage structures, 
relocations of pipelines and utilities, and modification 
of bridges would be required in connection with the 
work. 

Estimated cost of the project (30 June 1976) 
is $14,500,000 Federal and $3,400,000 non-Federal. 
Construction began in August 1974 and is scheduled 
for completion in 1980. 



Bayou Bodcau drains 1,158 square miles in 
southwestern Arkansas and northwestern Louisiana. 
It rises in the vicinity of Hope, Arkansas, flows 
southerly through Bodcau Lake to join Cypress 
Bayou and form Red Chute Bayou. The flow 
continues through Red Chute Bayou, Flat River, and 
Loggy Bayou, and enters Red River from the left 
bank about 50 miles below Shreveport. The 
protection authorized by the Flood Control Act of 
October 1965 consists of levees and channel 
improvement which would afford protection against 
a 25-year headwater flood and a backwater flood 
resulting from a recurrence of the 1945 flood on Red 
River under 1962 reservoir conditions. The project 
will benefit an estimated 20,710 acres of fertile Red 
River agricultural lands. 

The project will include extension of the 
existing levee along Cypress Bayou, in a southerly 
direction to the junction of Cross Bayou and Red 
Chute Bayou and thence parallel to the west 
descending bank of Red Chute to a point located 
just above Cutoff Bayou, a total distance of 
approximately 25 miles. Approximately 5 miles of 
levee on the east descending bank of Red Chute will 



BAYOU BODCAU, RED 
CHUTE, AND LOGGY BAYOU 

(New Orleans District) 

Located downstream of Bodcau Dam about 25 
miles southeast of Shreveport, this project consists 
of channel improvement for flood control. 

Improvement of the lower 7.8 miles of the 
channel, consisting of 2.4 miles of snagging and 
clearing and 5.4 miles of channel enlargement, was 
completed in 1948 at a Federal cost of $319,200. 
A modification of this project, "Bayou Bodcau and 
Tributaries," is also described hereinbefore. 

During the flood of May 1958, stages at the 
U. S. Highway 80 gage, just northeast of Shreveport, 
were estimated to have been reduced by 2.6 feet, 
and flooding on 9,100 acres of cropland was 
prevented because of this project. Estimated benefits 
cumulative through June 1976 are $389,000. The 
Bossier Levee District maintains the project. 

BAYOU PIERRE 

(New Orleans District) 

This 30-mile channel improvement project for 



68 



flood control extends from Bayou Wincey to the 
mouth of Bayou Pierre. It was completed in 1939 
at a cost of $299,529. Cumulative benefits through 
June 1976 are estimated at $921,000. The 
improvement is operated and maintained by the 
Red River-Bayou Pierre Levee and Drainage District. 

BAYOU PIERRE, 

VICINITY OF SHREVEPORT 

(New Orleans District) 

Drainage for parts of south Shreveport and the 
agricultural lands below the city is provided by this 
project. The channel enlargement and snagging and 
clearing involved 21 miles of channel in and below 
Shreveport to the mouth of Cypress Bayou. 
Completed in 1950, the cost was $332,383, of which 
$89,047 was contributed by local interests. 

Stages for the flood of April 1953, the largest 
since completion of the improvements, were reduced 
an estimated 2.5 feet. About 290 acres within 
Shreveport and about 4,800 acres downstream of the 
city were protected from overflow. Project benefits 
cumulative through June 1976 are an estimated 
$1,935,000. 

Within the city limits, the channel improvement 
is maintained by the city of Shreveport, while the 
remainder of the improvements are maintained by the 
Caddo Parish Police Jury. Portions of the bayou in 
Caddo Parish have been enlarged by the Police Jury, 
in cooperation with the State of Louisiana, 
Department of Transportation and Development, 
Office of Public Works. 

BODCAU LAKE, 
ARKANSAS-LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans District) 

Bodcau Lake is located in Webster and Bossier 
Parishes, Louisiana, and Lafayette County, Arkansas. 
This is a single-purpose flood control reservoir, and 
there is no permanent pool. The dam is an 
11,900-foot-long rolled-earth fill with twin 
uncontrolled conduits 10 feet in diameter and a 
4,000- foot uncontrolled spillway. 

The top of the flood pool is at elevation 199.5 
feet mean sea level. For flood control storage, the 



reservoir has a capacity of 357,300 acre-feet which 
will cover 21,000 acres. Seventy-two thousand acres 
of fertile bottomland including parts of Barksdale Air 
Force Base and Bossier City are protected by the 
reservoir. 

During the flood of May 1958, stages at the 
U. S. Highway 80 gage were reduced by an estimated 
2.9 feet and flooding was prevented on 9,900 acres 
of cropland. Estimated cumulative flood damages of 
$475,000 have been prevented by this project as of 
30 June 1976. 

Recreational development has spurred visitation 
to the reservoir from an estimated 8,000 people in 
1955 to approximately 345,000 in 1975. Facilities 
for picnicking, camping, boat launching, rest rooms, 
and sanitary and water supply systems have been 
provided by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers at 
a cost of about $132,000 through June 1974. No 
additional funds have been allocated to date. 

Waterfowl and upland game hunting areas have 
been developed by the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission, through license agreement 
with the Secretary of the Army. Hunting and fishing 
in the area have been improved through a supervised 
game management program and releases of fish and 
game stock. 

A 500-acre subimpoundment, Ivan Lake, has 
been constructed on an arm of Bodcau Lake just 
north of State Highway 160 by the Bossier Parish 
Police Jury under license agreement and in 
cooperation with the State of Louisiana, Department 
of Transportation and Development, Office of Public 
Works. The feature includes recreational development 
of 1,110 acres surrounding the reservoir. 

Construction was initiated in 1947 and 
essentially completed in 1961 with the exception of 
recreational facilities. The total project cost is 
$4,232,000 including $132,000 for recreational 
facilities. 

CAMPTI-CLARENCE LEVEE 

(New Orleans District) 

Flood protection for 29,500 acres of land and 
improvements on the left descending bank of Red 
River below Campti is provided by this levee. Works 
consist of 30 miles of ring levee to protect the area 



69 




"■'.*—•—"'* 



4£ ;v G 




AUs ***>*i A 



' Lov isi AH/ 



from Red River and Saline Bayou overflow, and 
construction of interior drainage improvements to 
alleviate the local interior flood problem. 
Construction of the project was initiated in 
September 1964 and completed in August 1968. 
Total cost of the project was $2,053,000, which 
includes $480,000 non-Federal costs. 

EAST POINT LEVEE 
(New Orleans District) 

This project consists of approximately 13 miles 
of levee along the left bank of Loggy Bayou and Red 
River with appurtenant drainage works, including a 
control structure at Coushatta Bayou. About 9,000 
acres of Red River bottomlands near Coushatta are 
protected. Construction was initiated in January 
1966 and completed in August 1968. Total cost was 
$553,100, including $67,000 local cost. 

GRANT PARISH BELOW COLFAX 
(New Orleans District) 

The Grant Parish below Colfax project was 
designed to provide increased flood protection to the 
town of Colfax and vicinity. The improvement 
consists of an extension of the levee system along 
the left bank of Red River from the town of Colfax 
to the west bank of Bayou Darrow, a distance of 
about 16 miles. 

Without the levee, completed in 1941 at a cost 
of $38,809, Colfax would have been flooded to an 
estimated depth of 5 feet in April 1945. 

The levee extension has since been enlarged and 
extended by a companion project, " Aloha- Rigolette 
Area, Grant and Rapides Parishes." This companion 
project was completed in 1956. 

Since both projects provide partial protection to 
the same area, benefits from the two projects are 
inseparable. Cumulative benefits from the prevention 
of floods for the two projects through June 1976 
are $2,591,000. 

NATCHITOCHES PARISH 
(New Orleans District) 

Approximately 135,000 acres in the Cane River 



"Island" area are protected from Red River overflow 
by this project. Work was completed in 1956 at a 
cost of $1,780,000, of which $250,000 was 
contributed by local interests. 

The project consists of 34.4 miles of levee along 
the right bank of Red River extending from the 
vicinity of Natchitoches to Cane River and then along 
and across Cane River to the hills on the south bank; 
a diversion channel, about 4.3 miles long, extending 
from Cane River through the hills to Red Bayou; 
the widening of 1.2 miles of Red Bayou channel 
to Red River; and rearrangement of the interior 
drainage. 

An estimated 57,000 acres was protected during 
the flood of May 1942. The levee system saved 
portions of the town of Natchitoches from flooding 
in April 1945 even though practically all of the Cane 
River "Island" area was inundated. 

Flooding occurred over approximately 72,000 
acres in the Cane River, Kisatchie Bayou, and Old 
River area during May 1953. However, the levee pro- 
tected an additional 40,000 acres from Red River over- 
flow. Sixty-six thousand acres were protected from 
flooding during both April- June 1957 and May 1958. 

Cumulative benefits (through June 1976) from 
this project are estimated at $4,226,000. Maintenance 
on the project is the responsibility of the Cane River 
Levee District. 

PINEVILLE 

(New Orleans District) 

The Pineville project is designed to protect the 
city of Pineville and vicinity against floodwaters of 
the Red River. Improvements authorized in 1941 
consist of about 1.14 miles of levee, the raising and 
widening of 1,240 feet of railroad embankment, four 
drainage structures, and a pumping station. 

The major portions of this work were completed 
in 1951 at a cost of $232,426. 

During the flood of May 1953, approximately 
130 acres in the area were protected by the levee 
system. Cumulative flood damages prevented by the 
project through June 1974 are estimated at $37,000. 
Maintenance of the project, including operation of 
the four drainage structures and the pumping station, 



72 



is the responsibility of the Red River, Atchafalaya, 
and Bayou Boeuf Levee District. 



POSTEN BAYOU, 
ARKANSAS AND LOUISIANA 
(New Orleans District) 



$3,908,000. Through June 1976 the project has 
prevented an estimated total of $1,965,000 in 
cumulative flood damages. The project is main- 
tained by the Caddo and Bossier Levee Districts, 
each of which maintains the work within its own 
District. 



A project for the Posten Bayou, Arkansas and 
Louisiana area, was authorized by Public Law 218, 
84th Congress, approved August 1955. It provided 
for realignment and enlargement of Posten Bayou 
below Mile 10 for diversion of tributary flood runoff 
from an area of about 9,200 acres. Due to opposition 
from the State of Louisiana, the project was placed 
in an inactive status. 

In a restudy of the problem under the 
Comprehensive Basin Study of Red River below 
Denison Dam, an alternative plan for a project lying 
wholly within the State of Arkansas was developed. 
An interim report recommending this plan in lieu of 
the previous plan was completed in March 1968, and 
the recommended improvements were authorized in 
December 1970 under Section 201 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1965. For details see Arkansas 
pamphlet. 

RED RIVER IN 

VICINITY OF SHREVEPORT 

(New Orleans District) 

Consisting of bank protection works, this 
project extends intermittently from the lower limits 
of Bossier City, Mile 304.6, upstream to Mile 315.0. 
This effort to stabilize the Red River channel and 
prevent excessive bank caving includes works at 
Brownlee Bend, Honore Bend, and Bossier City front 
on the left bank and Twelvemile Bayou Bend, 
Douglas Island Bend, and Shreveport front on the 
right bank. 

Features of the project protect about 58,000 
linear feet of Red River banks and include 31,000 
feet of board revetment, 6,800 feet of pile dike, 
5,300 feet of rock groins, 19,780 feet of fascine 
boxes, 9,930 feet of pile revetment, and 470 feet 
of baffle dikes. 

Costs for the project, completed in 1953, were 



RED RIVER LEVEES AND 
BANK STABILIZATION BELOW 
DENISON DAM, TEXAS, OKLAHOMA, 
ARKANSAS, AND LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans and Tulsa Districts) 

Works under this project, which consist of 
raising and strengthening the existing and authorized 
levees of Red River from the vicinity of Index, 
Arkansas, to Pineville, Louisiana, on the left 
descending bank and to Boyce, Louisiana, on the 
right descending bank, will protect against a flood 
equivalent to that of 1945 if it had been confined 
by levees. There are approximately 153 miles of 
levees on the left bank and 240 miles of levees on 
the right bank in the system. Bank protection and 
channel stabilization works are constructed in areas 
where levee relocations are impossible or 
uneconomical. 

In Louisiana approximately 76 miles of levee on 
the right bank and 27 miles on the left bank have 
been raised to grade and section. A total of 
31.6 miles of bank have been protected and four 
cutoffs constructed in Louisiana. Authorized in 1946, 




BANK STABILIZATION WORK- 
BOURBEAUX, LOUISIANA 



73 



this project will cost an estimated $48,700,000 in 
Federal funds of which $31,277,000 is the cost 
through June 1976. The project is scheduled for 
completion in 1978. Cumulative benefits through 
June 1976 are estimated at $2,258,000. The 
completed portions of the project are maintained by 
local interests. 

RED RIVER PARISH 
(New Orleans District) 

About 176,000 acres of land in the Bayou Pierre 
Basin along Red River are protected by this project. 
Completed in 1940, at a cost of $149,435, the 
improvements included 31.0 miles of new levees and 
levee enlargement along the south bank of Red River 
in Red River Parish. 

Although the levee was breached during the 
flood of 1945, 20,000 acres were still protected from 
floodwaters. The levees protected about 29,000 acres 
of land during the flood of April- June 1957 and 
about 31,000 acres during the flood of May 1958. 

Cumulative benefits for this project through 
June 1976 are estimated at $1,706,000. The project 
is maintained by the Red River-Bayou Pierre Levee 
District. 

SALINE POINT 

(New Orleans District) 

Designed to reduce flood stages by increasing 
the efficiency of the channel, this project consists 
of two cutoffs on Red River. Completed in 1942 at 
a cost of $124,100, the Saline and Double Eddy 
Cutoffs connected Mile 65.5 to Mile 54.0 (1938 
mileage). Necessary levee setbacks were also included 
in the project. 

The improvements have significantly reduced 
flood stages in the area and benefits, cumulative 
through June 1976, are estimated at $65,000. 

WALLACE LAKE 

(New Orleans District) 

Wallace Lake, located on Cypress Bayou below 
Shreveport, provides protection from floodwaters to 



about 90,000 acres of agricultural lands in Caddo and 
DeSoto Parishes. The original project was authorized 
by the Flood Control Act of June 1936, as amended 
by the Act of June 1938. 

Construction was initiated in 1941 and 
completed in 1946 at a total project cost of 
$1,219,371, including $17,164 for recreational 
facilities. 

The dam, which is located 14 miles southeast 
of Shreveport and rises to a maximum of 48 feet 
above the valley floor, is comprised of an earth fill 
4,300 feet long, a reinforced-concrete overflow 
spillway 644 feet in length, with crest at elevation 
158 feet above mean sea level, and outlet works. The 
outlet works, consisting of four rectangular conduits, 
each 8.25 feet wide and 3 feet high, with invert 
at 140 feet above mean sea level, are integral 
with the spillway. The lake controls the runoff 
from 260 square miles of the Cypress Bayou 
watershed. 

The total storage capacity of the lake is 96,100 
acre-feet, of which 7,800 acre-feet is for conservation 
and 88,300 acre-feet is for flood control. The surface 
area of the lake is 2,300 acres at conservation pool, 
elevation 142 feet mean sea level; and 9,300 acres 
at flood pool, elevation 158 feet mean sea level. 

The project has prevented an estimated 
$1,067,000 in flood damages, cumulative through 
June 1976. 

Wallace Lake is one of the recreation spots of 
the Shreveport area. The conservation pool of the 
lake provides recreation opportunities in fishing and 
hunting. Improved access roads to the lake have been 
constructed. On peak days, as many as 150 boats 
may use the lake, and approximately 40,000 pounds 
of fish are caught by sportsmen annually. Boats, 
tackle, bait, and other necessities may be obtained 
at fishing camps located near the dam. In 1975, an 
estimated 130,000 persons visited the project for 
recreational purposes. 

A restudy of the existing project on Wallace 
Lake, Louisiana, has been initiated to determine 
the advisability of satisfying local requests for ad- 
ditional recreational area and to provide an ad- 
ditional water supply for municipal and industrial 
areas (see page 81). 



74 



WEST AGURS LEVEE 

(New Orleans District) 

The West Agurs levee, constructed by local 
interests in 1961, poses a serious flood threat to the 
area behind the levee due to possible failure from 
uplift and underseepage during a large flood. The 
700 acres of land located behind the levee is a 
rapidly expanding area of Shreveport, Louisiana. The 
project, authorized by the Water Resources Develop- 
ment Act of 1976, provides for improvements to re- 
duce this flood threat and incorporation of the West 
Agurs levee into the Federal project Red River 
Below Denison Dam. The improvements consist of 
a series of relief wells the entire length of the 
landside borrow pit adjacent to the levee. 

The cost of the improvements are estimated at 
$490,000, all of which would be Federal. 
Reconstruction planning funds are not available. 

RED RIVER BELOW FULTON, 
ARKANSAS 

(New Orleans District) 

Previous work for the continuing improvement 
of Red River below Fulton, Arkansas, was first 
authorized in 1828 and subsequent years through 
1890. The existing project was authorized by the 
River and Harbor Act of 13 July 1892. A 35-mile 
link between the Ouachita and Black River navigation 
project and the Mississippi River is included in the 
project. Features of the project are clearing of banks, 
snagging, dredging shoals, building levees, closing out- 
lets, revetting caving banks, and preventing injurious 
cutoffs. No channel dimensions are specified. Although 
this is a continuing project, it is considered complete. 

Except during high river stages which usually are 
of short duration, depth for navigation on Red River 
is insufficient above the mouth of Black River. 
Traffic in the upper river is generally limited to 
movement of construction equipment and supplies. 
Average annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 902,484 
tons, practically all of which was through traffic from 
the Black and Atchafalaya Rivers to Mississippi River. 

Work under this authorization, exclusive of 
operation and maintenance, cost $1,963,806. Two 



later modifications of this project, Overton-Red River 
Waterway and Red River Waterway, are discussed 
separately on page 66 and below. 

RED RIVER WATERWAY 

LOUISIANA, ARKANSAS, 

OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS 

(New Orleans and' Tulsa Districts) 

The River and Harbor Act of 1968 authorized, 
among others, the following improvements. 

1. As a modification of the project, "Red 
River Below Fulton, Arkansas, and Louisiana," a plan 
for navigation on Red River from the Mississippi 
River to Shreveport consisting of a slack-water 
channel 9 feet deep and 200 feet wide, in Red River, 
utilizing five navigation locks and dams. 

2. As a modification of the project, "Cypress 
Bayou and Waterway Between Jefferson, Texas, and 
Shreveport, Louisiana," a plan for navigation on 
Twelvemile and Cypress Bayous, from Shreveport, 
Louisiana, to Daingerfield, Texas, consisting of a 
slack-water channel 9 feet deep and 200 feet wide, 
utilizing three (two existing) navigation dams and 
three navigation locks. 

3. As a modification of the project, "Red 
River Levees and Bank Stabilization Below Denison 
Dam, Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana," a 
comprehensive plan for bank stabilization on Red 
River from Denison Dam to the Mississippi River. 

Recreation facilities are included as integral 
parts of each of the above modifications. 

Estimated total cost for the overall project 
(1 October 1976), which includes work in the Tulsa 
District, is $1,645,640,600, including $3,540,600 for 
the Coast Guard and $94,900,000 non-Federal. Esti- 
mated cost of works in Louisiana is $1,179,309,000 
Federal and $32,680,000 non-Federal. 

The works authorized for construction in 
Louisiana include approximately 240 miles of 
navigation improvements, 225 miles of channel 
stabilization works, and various recreational facilities. 
Preconstruction planning is continuing on the 
Mississippi River to Shreveport reach of the project. 
Construction in this reach, initiated in July 1973, 
has mainly been channel realinement and 



75 




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76 




RED RIVER REALIGN- 
MENT WORK, HADDEN- 
FT. DERUSSY 



RED RIVER REALIGNMENT 
WORK, CHOCTAW BAYOU 
BEND 



stabilization work; however, work was initiated in 
1977 on Lock and Dam No. 1 (see illustration on 
preceding page) and is currently scheduled for 
completion in 1985. An economic reanalysis of the 
Shreveport to Daingerfield, Texas, reach was initiated 
in September 1974. Preconstruction planning was 
initiated on the Shreveport to Index reach in 1976. 

SHREVES ISLAND CUTOFF 
(New Orleans District) 

This is an emergency channel improvement 
project in Bossier Parish near Blenheim which was 
completed in 1936 at a cost of $85,746. 



TWELVEMILE BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 

Enlargement of Twelvemile Bayou between Cash 
Point Floodgates, Mile 9.6, and U. S. Highway 71 
bridge, Mile 4.5, and snagging and clearing between 
U. S. Highway 71 bridge and Red River, were 
authorized under Section 205, Flood Control Act of 
1948, as amended. 

Work on this project was initiated in April 
1964, and completed in May 1965 at a cost of 
$335,433. Cumulative benefits from flood damages 
prevented through June 1976 are estimated at 
$77,000. 



77 



Small Projects 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING 

Under the authority of Section 2 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1937 (and subsequent modifications), 



Stream 



Wallace Bayou 
Posten Bayou 
Brush Bayou 
Cane River 
Brush Bayou 



Type of Improvement 



which is discussed on page xviii of the Introduction, 
work has been accomplished on the following streams 
in the Red River Basin: 



Gearing and snagging 

Gearing, snagging, and enlargement 

Gearing, snagging, and realignment 

Clearing and snagging 

Gearing, snagging, and enlargement 



Length of 






Improvement 


Date 




miles 


Completed 
1951 


Cost 


3.2 


$11,502 


10.0 


1951 


46,021 


4.7 


1953 


48,317 


18.6 


1960 


97,035 


4.7 


1960 


49,785 



Emergency Projects 



EMERGENCY BANK PROTECTION- 
RED RIVER 

(New Orleans and Tulsa Districts) 

Authorized bank stabilization works under 
currently funded projects upstream of the 
Overton- Red River Waterway (lower 31 miles) project 
are limited to isolated locations for immediate 
protection of short segments of levee or other 
improvements. These isolated efforts do not provide 
an effective solution to the overall problem of bank 
caving and channel migration. Accelerated bank loss 
and channel misalignment in various reaches of the 
Red River have become critical. 

A comprehensive bank stabilization program for 
these critical reaches is proposed under the Red River 
Waterway project as authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1968. An emergency plan to treat 



major meanders and correct misalignment in these 
critical reaches in accordance with the comprehensive 
program was considered necessary and justifiable and 
was approved in the 1970 Senate hearings. 
Construction of bank protection works was initiated 
in 1972 and is currently scheduled for completion 
in 1982. The estimated Federal cost of the project 
is $44,700,000 and the non-Federal cost is $460,000. 
Funds in the amount of $22,883,000 have been 
allotted through June 1976. 

EMERGENCY REPAIRS- 
PUBLIC LAW 99-84 

This law is discussed in the Introduction on 
page xviii. Levee work in Red River Basin 
accomplished under this authority is shown in the 
tabulation on the following page. 



78 



EMERGENCY LEVEE REPAIRS-RED RIVER BASIN 



No. Setbacks 
or Repairs 



67 

2 
16 
16 
26 

1 
13 

8 
26 

1 
3 

1 



District 



Red River 

Red River, Atchafalaya and Bayou Boeuf Levee 

Red River, Bayous Darrow and Rigolette Levee 

19th Louisiana Levee and Drainage 

Cane River Levee and Drainage 

Red River and Bayou Pierre Levee and Drainage 

Saline Levee and Drainage 

Bossier Levee 

North Bossier Levee 

Caddo Levee 

5th Louisiana Levee 

Campti-Clarence Levee 

Natchitoches Levee and Drainage 



Caddo Levee 



Caddo Levee 



Twelvemile Bayou 



Black Bayou 



Pine Brush Bayou 



Quantity 
cubic yards 


Cost 


4,636,968 


$1,825,036 


333,796 


81,600 


799,873 


279,681 


1,303,185 


519,448 


1,242,331 


528,354 


240,881 


88,743 


627,659 


234,256 


746,072 


160,008 


1,201,752 


363,037 


199,426 


83,977 


58,300 


57,088 


15,000 


10,000 



19th Louisiana Levee 



13,414 



40,466 



15,316 



5,978 



31,389 



6,099 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



BENOIT BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 



BICKHAM BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 



A special flood hazard information report for 
the Bossier City area was completed and published 
in November 1973. 

The study area encompasses the Benoit Bayou 
watershed. The report was prepared at the request 
of the Shreveport Area Office of the Federal Housing 
Administration in an effort to encourage the most 
efficient use of land for which residential 
development is being planned. The report indicates 
that the area is subject to headwater flooding. 
Information concerning the possible future flooding 
is presented in the report. 



A special flood hazard information report on the 
area along Bickham Bayou near Shreveport was 
completed and published in February 1973. 

The study area encompasses the Bickham Bayou 
watershed. The report was prepared at the request 
of the Shreveport Metropolitan Planning Commission 
of Caddo Parish in an effort to encourage the most 
efficient use of land within its jurisdiction and to 
eliminate flood damages and hazards through 
well-planned local regulations governing development 
and use of flood plains. The report indicates that the 
area is subject to headwater flooding and provides 



79 



information on the extent and severity of possible 
future flooding. 

BRUSH BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 

A special flood hazard information report for 
the area along Brush Bayou in the vicinity of 
Shreveport was completed and published in July 
1968. 

The study area encompasses the Brush Bayou 
watershed. The report was prepared at the request 
of the Shreveport Area Office of the Federal Housing 
Administration in an effort to reduce the risk to the 
public, builder, and Federal Housing Administration, 
and, in addition, to provide information for a basis 
upon which to approve further developments along 
Brush Bayou from its intersection with U. S. 
Highway 171 downstream to Wallace Lake flood 
control pool. The report indicates that the area is 
subject to headwater flooding. Information 
concerning the extent and severity of possible 
flooding is presented in the report. 

SAND BEACH BAYOU 

(New Orleans District) 

A special flood hazard information report on 
portions of Bayou Pierre and Sand Beach Bayou in 
the city of Shreveport and vicinity was completed 
and published in January 1974. 

The report was prepared at the request of the 
Shreveport Area Office of the Federal Housing 
Administration, in an effort to encourage the most 
efficient use of land for which residential 
development is being planned. The report indicates 
that the area is subject to headwater flooding and 
provides information on the extent and severity of 
possible future flooding. 

SHREVEPORT NO. 1 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on McCain 
Creek and Gilmer Bayou in Shreveport and vicinity 



was completed and published in January 1971 at a 
cost of $30,864. 

The study area covers McCain Creek beginning 
at its confluence with Twelvemile Bayou and 
extending upstream approximately 4.2 miles. The 
report indicates that this area is subject to a 
combination of headwater and backwater floods. 
Backwater flooding has been reduced by Federal 
flood control projects on the Red River and by Lake 
O' the Pines Dam and Reservoir on Cypress Creek, 
a tributary to Twelvemile Bayou. The Red River 
navigation and bank stabilization project, authorized 
by the U. S. Congress in the River and Harbor Act 
of 1968, would reduce flooding on McCain Creek by 
the lowering of flood stages on Red River and 
Twelvemile Bayou. The study also covers Gilmer 
Bayou beginning at its confluence with Boggy Bayou 
and extending upstream approximately 9 miles. The 
report revealed that this area is subject to headwater 
flooding. There are no Federal or State control 
projects on Gilmer Bayou. 

SHREVEPORT NO. 2 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Brush 
Bayou area in the vicinity of Shreveport was 
completed and published in February 1974 at a cost 
of $22,000. 

The study area encompasses Brush Bayou and 
tributaries beginning along Brush Bayou at Mile 2 
and continuing upstream to Mile 9. The study 
indicates that the area is subject to headwater 
flooding. A detailed project report has been 
completed by the Corps of Engineers and approved 
by the Office of the Chief of Engineers. The detailed 
project report is favorable to improvements which 
would significantly reduce flooding in the area; see 
page 64. 

SHREVEPORT NO. 3 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Logan 
and Choctaw Bayous area in the vicinity of 



80 



Shreveport was completed and published in April 
1974 at a cost of $27,500. 

The study area encompasses Logan Bayou from 
Mile to Mile 4.5, and Choctaw Bayou from Mile 



to Mile 7. The report indicates that the area is 
subject to headwater flooding and provides 
information on the extent and severity of possible 
future flooding. 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Flood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, Corps 
of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies for 
HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed or 



are under way in the Red River Basin are listed 

below. 

Study Area 



Completed: 
Under Way: 



None 

Alexandria 
Colfax 
Rapides Parish 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



RED RIVER BELOW DENISON DAM, 

COMPREHENSIVE BASIN STUDY, 

LOUISIANA, ARKANSAS, 

OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS 

(New Orleans District) 

A study was initiated in 1962 under the 
direction of a coordinating committee chaired by the 
New Orleans District of the Corps of Engineers. The 
basic objective of the study was to develop a 
comprehensive plan for development of the water and 
related land resources of the basin. Two interim 
reports were completed prior to completion of the 
comprehensive study. The first, entitled "Interim 
Report on Navigation and Bank Stabilization," was 
submitted for review in March 1966. The second, 
entitled "Posten Bayou, Arkansas," was submitted in 
March 1968. The report presenting the overall 
comprehensive plan was completed and submitted to 
the Water Resources Council in July 1968. In May 
1976, the council forwarded the comprehensive study 
to the House of Representatives. 

Plans developed in the comprehensive report 
were divided into early action and long-range 



segments. Each segment of the plan includes a broad 
spectrum of structural and nonstructural measures. 
Features of the early action segment are needed now 
and should be implemented within the next 10 to 
15 years. Reports seeking authorization of 
noncontroversial early action projects have been 
prepared by New Orleans and Tulsa Districts. 

RED RIVER BELOW DENISON DAM; 
COMPREHENSIVE REPORT- 
AUTHORIZING REPORT 

(New Orelans District) 

In 1976 work was initiated on two authorizing 
reports, Bayou Dorcheat, Arkansas, and Cane River 
Island area, Louisiana. 

The Bayou Dorcheat Basin is located primarily 
in Nevada, Lafayette, and Columbia Counties, 
Arkansas, and Webster Parish, Louisiana. This study 
will investigate the problems of meeting present and 
future water needs in the Bayou Dorcheat Basin, and 
determine if any improvements for flood control, 
recreation, municipal and industrial water supply, and 
allied purposes are warranted at this time. Solutions 



81 



to be considered will include singly or in 
combination, levees, channel improvements, 
reservoirs, and nonstructural measures. Completion is 
scheduled for 1979. 

The Cane River drainage basin encompasses 
approximately 733 square miles in Natchitoches, 
Vernon, and Sabine Parishes, with the greatest 
portion of the area in Natchitoches Parish. A portion 
of this drainage basin, known as Cane River Island, 
has a serious drainage problem. The interior drainage 
of Cane River Island is discharged into Cane River 
through gated gravity drainage structures. During 
periods of high stages on Cane River, the gates must 
be closed to prevent backwater flooding; 
consequently, flooding due to impoundment of local 
runoff results. Solutions to be considered involve 
singly or in combination, channel improvements, 
pumping stations, floodgate modifications, and 
nonstructural measures. The study is scheduled for 
completion in 1979. 

ALOHA-RIGOLETTE (RED RIVER) 
AREA, LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans District) 



River and Tributaries, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, 
and Louisiana, downstream from Denison Dam, and 
subsequent reports with a view toward determining 
the advisability of providing additional flood 
protection in the Aloha-Rigolette area. The study has 
not yet been funded. 

WALLACE LAKE, 
LOUISIANA 

(New Orleans District) 

A study is under way to determine the 
advisability of reformulating the existing flood 
control project to satisfy local requests for additional 
recreational area and to provide an additional water 
supply for municipal and industrial areas. Under this 
study preliminary evaluations indicated that the 
water supply and recreation demands projected for 
the study area can be better met by the existing and 
potential development at Caddo Lake without 
modification of the Wallace Lake project. No further 
studies are scheduled at this time. 



This study is to review the report on the Red 



82 



PEARL RIVER BASIN 






MISSISSIPP 




10 



SCALE OF MILES 

o 10 



20 

=1 



PEARL RIVER BASIN 



PEARL RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



The basin is located in the eastern part of 
Louisiana bounded by the State of Mississippi on the 
north and east and the Lake Pontchartrain Basin on 
the south and west. Improvements in the basin have 
been authorized for the purposes of navigation and 



associated uses. In recent years, commercial traffic 
in the basin has decreased and improvements are 
mainly used for recreational purposes. The two 
navigation projects located in the basin are described 
below. 



Projects 



PEARL RIVER 
(Mobile District) 

Under one of the Corps special authorizations, 
Section 3 of Public Law 14, 79th Congress (page xviii 
of the Introduction), a 150-foot-wide channel was 
snagged and cleared in the 65-mile reach between 
Bogalusa, Louisiana, and Columbia, Mississippi, for 
small boat navigation. Work on the project was 
carried out in 1968, 1969, and 1970 at a cost of 
$279,000, including $64,000 contributed by local 
interests. For information on the waterway below 
Bogalusa, a project specifically authorized by 
Congress, see the following writeup. 

PEARL RIVER WATERWAY, 

MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA 

(Mobile District) 

In 1975, shells constituted the principal 
commodity traveling over this 58-mile navigation 
channel from tire mouth of West Pearl River at the 
Rigolets to the mouth of Bogue Lusa Creek at 



Bogalusa. Average annual commercial traffic on the 
waterway, 1971-1975, was 10,996 tons. 

Commercial traffic on the waterway has 
decreased considerably in recent years, and the 
waterway and its banks are now largely used for 
hunting, fishing, boating, waterskiing, swimming, 
hiking, picnicking, and camping. The Corps of 
Engineers has constructed concrete boat launching 
ramps at the three locks and at Pools Bluff, and small 
boat portages at the Bogue Chitto and Pools Bluff 
sites so that small boats can be moved around the 
sills. Improved roads give access to the locks and the 
Pools Bluff sill. Many private roads and trails to the 
waterway are also in use. About 415,500 people 
visited this project in 1975. 

Features of the project include a dredged 
channel 7 feet deep and 100 feet wide in the West 
Pearl River from its mouth to Holmes Bayou; a lateral 
canal 7 feet deep and 80 feet wide from the mouth 
of Holmes Bayou to Pools Bluff, with three locks 
having clear inside dimensions of 65 by 310 feet and 
a depth of 10 feet over the sills at low water; sills 
across Bogue Chitto and in the Pearl River just below 



85 



Pools Bluff to maintain the levels in the canal; and 
a dredged channel 7 feet deep and 100 feet wide 
in the Pearl River from Pools Bluff to the mouth 
of Bogue Lusa Creek. 

The project was authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1935. Construction began in 1938 and 
was substantially complete in 1953, having been 
interrupted during World War II. The construction 



cost was $8,275,000. Recreation facilities added after 
completion have cost approximately $144,000. 

In 1966, the River and Harbor Act authorized 
modification of the Pearl River Waterway project to 
alleviate navigation difficulties at eight locations 
along the West Pearl River portion of the waterway 
below Lock 1. The modification of the project has 
been placed in an inactive status. 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



BOGALUSA 
(Mobile District) 

A flood plain information report for the 
Bogalusa area was completed and published in June 
1973 at a cost of $24,000. 

The study area encompasses the Bogue Lusa and 
Coburn Creeks watersheds and the Pearl River at 
Bogalusa. The area is subject to headwater flooding 



from the Bogue Lusa and Coburn Creeks and 
backwater flooding from the Pearl River. The report 
includes a history of flooding in Bogalusa and 
identifies those areas that are subject to possible 
future floods. Solutions to flood problems are not 
provided in the report; however, it furnished a 
suitable basis for the adoption of land-use control 
to guide flood plain development and thereby prevent 
intensification of problems. 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



PEARL RIVER BASIN, 
MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA 
(Mobile District) 

This study was initiated in 1975 to review 
existing projects in the Pearl River Basin, with 
particular reference to providing barge navigation and 
water supply at Picayune, Mississippi. The study will 
include consideration of the need for any flow 
diversions between branches of the lower Pearl River 



and navigation improvements between the Gulf 
Intracoastal Waterway and Port Bienville, a new 
industrial park located on Mulatto Bayou, a tributary 
of the East Pearl River in Mississippi near the 
Louisiana line. The plans under study for access to 
Port Bienville include outlet channels from Mulatto 
Bayou through Little Lake to the Rigolets and 
through the mouth of the East Pearl River into Lake 
Borgne. Completion of the overall study is scheduled 
for 1980. 



86 



LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN 




MI SSISSI PPI 
"LOUISIANA 



Kentwood 






BATON! 
'ROUGE 



Jy 



v, 



\Franklinton 



^lAmite 



Hammond 






Bogalusa 



<£• 



) Covington 
J 



. u^. 



Plaquemine 



5. ^ 



nc/?0£ 



^ 



Gonzales 



ov 






\-0 



Donaldsonville 



\\l£R 



LAKE 
MAUREPAS ) 



La Place 



Slidell 



Z./I/TF PONTCHARTRAIN 



BONNET CARRE 
SPILLWAY 



|NEW| 
lORLEANSl 




iChalmette^ 




SCALE OF MILES 



10 o 

U H H H H I- 



10 



20 



30 



LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN 



LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN BASIN 



Introduction 



The Lake Pontchartrain Basin comprises the area 
east of the Mississippi River bounded on the north 
by the State of Mississippi, on the east by the Pearl 
River Basin, and on the south and west by the east 
bank of the Mississippi River. The area is 
characterized by rolling hills and alluvial lowlands 



with a fringe of tidal marsh at the shorelines 
of Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain. Improve- 
ments have been authorized and/or constructed 
for purposes of navigation, flood control, and hurri- 
cane protection. Individual projects are described 
below. 



Projects 



AMITE RIVER AND BAYOU 
MANCHAC 

(New Orleans District) 

Completed in 1928 at a cost of $28,234, the 
project consists of a 7- by 60-foot channel from Lake 
Maurepas to Port Vincent, and the removal of 
channel obstructions between Port Vincent and the 
Kansas City Southern Railroad bridge which crosses 
Bayou Manchac at about Mile 8.5. 

Although very little commercial traffic has been 
reported on this waterway in recent years, it is 
extensively used for recreational purposes. Average 
traffic from 1971-1975 was 11,575 tons. No 
commercial traffic was reported in 1971 and 1975. 

AMITE RIVER AND 

TRIBUTARIES 
(New Orleans District) 

Year-round opportunities for water-based sports 
are available along this waterway. Hundreds of private 



camps are located in the area and 14 commercial 
access points provide launching, boats, bait, cabins, 
and restaurant facilities. State-owned public access 
facilities are located at U. S. Highway 71 on Reserve 
Canal, Garyville Canal, Blind River, and Bayou 
Francois. Other public launching areas are available 
at Port Vincent and Chinquapin. 

Designed for flood control along the Amite 
River, the completed project consists of a 10.6-mile 
diversion channel from the Amite River at Mile 25.3 
to Mile 4.8 of Blind River; enlargement of the Comite 
River from its mouth to Cypress Bayou; clearing and 
snagging of Amite River from its conjunction with 
the Comite at Mile 54 to Mile 35.7 at Bayou 
Manchac; enlargement and realignment of Amite 
River from Bayou Manchac to Mile 25.3; and clearing 
and snagging of Bayou Manchac from the Amite to 
Ward's Creek. 

The diversion channel is connected to the Amite 
River by a control weir which serves to retain low 
flows in Amite River. A small navigation channel 
through the control allows small boats to pass to and 



89 



from the river and the diversion channel. 

The State of Louisiana, Department of 
Transportation and Development, Office of Public 
Works, constructed approximately 2.7 miles of the 
diversion channel and the Comite River enlargement 
as a substitute for the cash contribution required by 
the project authorization. The Comite enlargement 
was to greater dimensions than that planned under 
the Federal project. 

Maintenance of completed work within their 
respective boundaries is the responsibility of the 
Ascension and Livingston Parish Police Juries and the 
East Baton Rouge Parish Council. 

Construction of this project was initiated in 
June 1957 and completed in February 1964 at a cost 
of $3,034,685. Cumulative benefits from flood 
damages prevented through June 1976 are estimated 
at $5,027,000. 

BAYOU BONFOUCA 

(New Orleans District) 

Major traffic on Bayou Bonfouca is generated 
by a shipyard, a creosote treatment plant, and a 
clamshell storage area. In 1975, marine shells 
accounted for 68,706 tons of traffic on this 
waterway. Average annual traffic from 1971-1975 
was 56,392 tons. 

Completed in 1931 at a cost of $36,497, this 
project consists of an 8-mile-long channel, which is 
10 feet deep, and with a bottom width of 60 feet. 
The waterway extends from Slidell to deep water in 
Lake Pontchartrain. 

The lower end of this project provides access 
to Lake Pontchartrain from popular boating areas on 
Bayou Liberty. 

BAYOU LACOMBE 

(New Orleans District) 



Traffic on the waterway averaged 84,724 tons 
annually from 1971-1975, with 9,600 tons recorded 
for 1975. 

Completed in 1938 at a cost of $4,716, the 
project consists of a 60-foot-wide, 8-foot-deep 
channel through the entrance bar in Lake 
Pontchartrain and removal of snags and overhanging 
trees from Mile 8.2 to the mouth of Bayou Lacombe. 

The snagging has greatly enhanced this waterway 
for recreational use. 

CHEFUNCTE RIVER AND 
BOGUE FALIA 

(New Orelans District) 

This waterway, which is approximately 14 miles 
in length, furnishes excellent fishing, boating, and 
other recreational opportunities. Adjacent higher 
lands are rapidly being developed for private homes 
and campsites. 

The Chefuncte River and Bogue Falia project 
was authorized in 1881 and modified in 1930 and 
1958. The original 8- foot project from Covington to 
Lake Pontchartrain was completed in 1929. 

The present project provides for a 10- by 
125-foot navigation channel from a 10- foot depth in 
Lake Pontchartrain to about Mile 3.5 of the 
Chefuncte River. From Mile 3.5 to Washington Street 
in Covington via the Chefuncte River and Bogue 
Falia, the channel would remain 8 feet deep. 

The 10-foot enlargement below Mile 3.5 was 
completed in 1959. The cost of the project was 
$58,342. Average annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 
79,946 tons. 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN AND 
VICINITY HURRICANE 

PROTECTION 
(New Orleans District) 



Although heavily used for boating, fishing, and 
access to Lake Pontchartrain, the major cargo on this 
waterway is gravel from the upper reaches of the 
bayou. 

Both public and commercial launching ramps 
have been constructed by non-Federal interests. 



A combination of levees, floodwalls, and flood 
control structures is being built in various locations 
along the shores of Lake Pontchartrain and Borgne 
as well as along the banks of adjacent waterways. 
The illustration on page 92 shows the details of the 
project which will provide protection to the Greater 



90 




BAYOU BIENVENUE CONTROL STRUCTURE 




BAYOU DUPRE CONTROL STRUCTURE 



New Orleans Metropolitan Area from hurricane 
flooding. Floodwalls and levees along the Inner 
Harbor Navigation Canal and around the areas east 
of that canal as well as around the Chalmette area 
are presently under construction with many portions 
already completed. The navigable floodgates at 
Bayous Bienvenue and Dupre are also complete. 
Substantial protection exists for the areas west of the 
canal except St. Charles Parish. The construction of 
the St. Charles Parish lakefront levee has been 
deferred indefinitely for environmental 

considerations. 

Barrier complexes will be built at the tidal 
connections between Lake Pontchartrain and the 
Gulf of Mexico: The Rigolets, Chef Menteur Pass, 
and Seabrook. The structures comprising these 
complexes will be closed in advance of a hurricane 



and will limit the entry of hurricane generated tides 
into Lake Pontchartrain. This will reduce the flood 
threat to the lakeshore areas. The barrier complexes 
are illustrated in the artist's renditions on page 93. 
Authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1965, 
this project will cost an estimated $378,000,000 of 
which approximately $118,000,000 will be borne by 
non-Federal interests. Federal construction was 
initiated in May 1967 and detailed planning 
is continuing on an accelerated schedule. Federal 
funds in the amount of $74,129,000 have been 
made available through September 1976. The proj- 
ect is scheduled for completion in 1992. When 
complete the project will provide essentially com- 
plete flood protection to 151,580 acres of land 
which includes 45,640 of urban development. Cu- 
mulative damages prevented by completed works 



91 




ABOVE-CHEF MENTEUR COMPLEX 




ABOVE- SEABROOK COMPLEX 



BELOW- RIGOLETS COMPLEX 



UtXUJMJUL 




are estimated at $90,000,000. 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN 

LEVEES 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized by the Flood Control Acts of 1946 
and 1950, the project includes construction of 
10.2 miles of levee along the Lake Pontchartrain 
shoreline of Jefferson Parish; enlargement of 
4.8 miles of levee along the Jefferson-St. Charles 
Parish line; and enlargement of 2.3 miles of the 17th 
Street Canal levee along the Jefferson-Orleans Parish 
line. 

These levees protect about 50 square miles of 
residential and industrial development in Jefferson 
Parish from storm tides in Lake Pontchartrain. Three 
new highways, the New Orleans International 
Airport, numerous industrial and commercial 
enterprises, civic buildings, and hospitals are located 
in the area. 

Authorization and construction of the levees set 
off an explosive economic expansion. Population 
increased from 54,000 in 1950 to 133,000 in 1960 
and, in 1975, was over 400,000, and the growth 
continues. Completed in 1956, the project cost 
$8,303,110, including a cash contribution of 
$1,350,000 by local interests. After Hurricane Betsy 
in 1965, the Pontchartrain Levee District raised the 
levees to provide added hurricane protection, 
expending approximately $2,300,000. 

Local interests were required to rehabilitate and 
improve the interior drainage system in the area. 
Project maintenance is the responsibility of the 
Pontchartrain Levee District. 

As of 30 June 1976, the project had prevented 
cumulative flood damages estimated at 
$1,050,755,000, including $21,800,000 for 
Hurricane Flossy (September 1956), $110,000,000 
for Hurricane Carla (September 1961), $98,000,000 
for Hurricane Hilda (October 1964), $70,000,000 for 
Hurricane Betsy (September 1965), $50,000,000 for 
Hurricane Camille (August 1969), and $228,500,000 
for Hurricane Carmen (September 1974). Additional 
benefits were accrued during the flood of 1973 and 
1974. 



PASS MANCHAC 

(New Orleans District) 

Pass Manchac provides access to Lakes 
Pontchartrain, Maurepas, and adjacent areas for 
fishing, crabbing, and hunting. The Louisiana 
Department of Highways is allowing an abandoned 
highway bridge to be used as a fishing pier. Launching 
ramps and commercial facilities are available at U. S. 
Highway 51. 

Major cargo in the pass is marine shells, which 
accounted for 51 percent of the commerce in 1975. 
Average annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 
454,539 tons. 

Authorized in 1910, the project called for 
removal of snags, logs, and other obstructions from 
the bars at the entrance of the pass and throughout 
its length between Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain. 
The 7-mile channel was completed in 1912 at a cost 
of $1,374. 

TANGIPAHOA RIVER 

(New Orleans District) 

This project, completed in 1884 at a cost of 
$11,500, provides for removal of overhanging trees, 
snags, and obstructions on the lower 53-1/2 miles of 
the river. Intermittent maintenance is required. 

Excellent opportunities for water-based 
recreation are available in this area. Ponchatoula 
Beach, a popular State- developed area for swimming 
and picnicking, Lee's Landing, and Bedico Creek 
open the waterway to the public. 

The project authorized under Section 107 of the 
River and Harbor Act of 1960, as amended, further 
enhances the excellent recreational potential of this 
waterway. 

TANGIPAHOA RIVER 
NAVIGATION PROJECT 

(New Orleans District) 

A boat channel through the bar in Lake 
Pontchartrain at the mouth of the Tangipahoa was 
completed in January 1971. Authorized under 
Section 107 of the River and Harbor Act of 1960, 
as amended by Section 310 of the River and Harbor 
Act of 1960, the project provides an 8- by 10- foot 



94 



navigation bar entrance channel in Lake 
Pontchartrain. The Federal cost of this Section 107 
project (see page xviii of the Introduction) was 
$61,211. Local interests contributed $29,346. 

TICKFAW, NATALBANY, 

PONCHATOULA, AND 

BLOOD RIVERS 

(New Orleans District) 

These beautiful waterways provide excellent 



opportunities for fishing, boating, and skiing. Public 
access is available at Wadesboro and Springfield. 
Commercial facilities are located on the Natalbany, 
Blood, and Tickfaw Rivers. Average traffic from 
1971-1975 was 10,685 tons. 

Authorized work includes removal of 
obstructions in the Tickfaw River from its mouth to 
Mile 26; in the Blood River from its mouth to the 
head of navigation about Mile 4; and in the Natalbany 
and Ponchatoula Rivers for a distance of 15-1/2 
miles. The project was completed in 1921 at a cost 
of $8,115. 



Small Projects 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING 
PROJECTS 

Under the authority of Section 2 of the Flood 



Control Act of 1937 (and subsequent modifications), 
which is discussed on page xviii of the Introduction, 
work has been accomplished on the following streams 
in the Lake Pontchartrain Basin: 



Stream 


Type of Improvement 


Length of 

Improvement 

miles 


Date 
Completed 

1947 


Cost 


Bayou Vincent 


Clearing, snagging, and enlargement 


1.4 


$13,000 


Bayou Francois 


Gearing and snagging 


8.2 


1948 


13,500 


New River 


Clearing, snagging, and enlargement 


8.7 


1948 


31,500 


Ponchatoula Creek 


Gearing and snagging 


3.3 


1949 


10,464 


Selsers Creek 


Clearing and snagging 


4.5 


1950 


4,958 


Yellow Water River 


Clearing and snagging 


2.8 


1950 


3,136 


Natalbany River 


Clearing, snagging, and enlargement 


5.0 


1954 


71,043 


Tickfaw River 


Clearing and snagging 


16.3 


1958 


50,107 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



BATON ROUGE NO. 1 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on Bayou 



Fountain in Baton Rouge was completed and 
published in June 1971 at a cost of $29,985/ 

The study area encompasses Bayou Fountain 
from its confluence with Bayou Manchac upstream 



95 



to Mile 13.3. The report indicates that the lower 
portion of the area is subject to backwater flooding 
and the upper reaches are subject to headwater 
flooding. Backwater flooding has been reduced since 
completion of the Amite River and Tributaries 
project; see page 89. 

BATON ROUGE NO. 2 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on Ward Creek 
and tributaries in Baton Rouge was completed and 
published in September 1972 at a cost of $27,402. 

The study covers Ward Creek and tributaries 
from Ward Creek confluence with Bayou Manchac 
to Mile 1 2.6. The lower portion of the area is subject 
to backwater flooding and the upper reaches to 
headwater flooding. The report includes a history of 
flooding along Ward Creek and tributaries; it 
identifies those areas that are subject to possible 
future floods, and furnishes a suitable basis for the 
adoption of land-use control to guide flood plain 
development. 

BATON ROUGE NO. 3 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Claycut 
Bayou and Jones Creek area in the vicinity of Baton 
Rouge was completed and published in October 1974 
at a cost of $26,000. 

The study covers Claycut Bayou from Mile 
at Amite River to above Mile 10 and Jones Creek 
from Mile at Amite River to about Mile 12. The 
report indicates that the area is subject to headwater 
flooding. During high stages on the Amite River, the 
lower reaches of streams are subject to backwater 
flooding. 

BATON ROUGE NO. 4 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on Hurricane 
Creek, Monte Sano Bayou and tributaries in and near 
the city of Baton Rouge was completed in September 
1976 at a cost of $32,000. 



The study covers Hurricane Creek, Monte Sano 
Bayou and tributaries from Hurricane Creek 
confluence with Comite River and a portion of the 
Comite River to the Scotlandville and Gibbens 
Laterals, north of Scotlandville. The report indicates 
that, while most of the stream channels in the study 
area have been improved since 1959, the threat of 
backwater flooding along lower Hurricane Creek from 
the Comite River and along lower Monte Sano Bayou 
from the Mississippi River remains significant. 

BATON ROUGE NO. 5 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report for areas of 
East Baton Rouge and Baker that would be flooded 
from the Comite River, Cypress Bayou, and tributary 
streams (the South, East, and West Laterals, and 
Gibbens Lateral) was completed in September 1976 
at a cost of $35,000. 

Developments within the flood plains of these 
streams experienced considerable damage during the 
floods of 1953, 1962, 1964, and 1967. Other floods 
known to have produced some property damage 
include those of 1947 and 1973. Since 1962, a series 
of channel improvement projects have been 
accomplished in the Cypress Bayou Basin and on the 
lower Comite River. During this period, 
approximately 11.3 miles of channel have been 
improved along the study reaches. Although these 
projects have lowered flood heights, markedly in 
some areas, studies indicate that a potential flood 
threat still remains. 

COVINGTON 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the 
Covington area was completed and published in 
November 1971 at a cost of $29,947. 

The study covers Tchefuncta River from Mile 
10.5 to 29, Bogue Falaya River from Mile to 13.3, 
and Little Bogue Falaya River from Mile to 4.1. 
The three streams are subject to headwater flooding. 
The report includes a history of flooding in the 
Covington area; it identifies those areas that are 



96 



subject to possible future floods, and provides a 
suitable basis for the adoption of land-use control 
to guide flood plain development. 

GONZALES 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the 
Gonzales area was completed and published in March 
1971 at a cost of $33,483. 

The study area encompasses New River from 
Mile 11.2 to Mile 22, Bayou Francois from Mile 4.9 
to Mile 10.5, and Bayou Black from Mile 8.1 to Mile 
12.8. The report indicates that flood problems in this 
area are due to headwater flooding. The report 
includes a history of flooding in Gonzales and 
vicinity; it identifies areas subject to possible future 
floods and provides a basis for the adoption of 
land-use controls to guide flood plain development. 



SLID ELL 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on Slidell and 
vicinity was completed and published in December 
1971 at a cost of $26,981. 

The study covers the following streams: Bayou 
Bonfouca from Mile 4.1 to 6.8, Bayou Vincent from 
Mile to 3.6, W-14 Main Diversion Canal from Mile 
1.4 to 7.7, Doubloon Branch from Mile 1.7 to 3.5, 
and French Branch from Mile to 3.5. Most of these 
streams are subject to a combination of tidal and 
headwater flooding. There are no existing 
comprehensive flood control projects that would 
benefit the entire watershed. However, when 
completed, the Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity 
Hurricane Protection will significantly reduce flood- 
ing from hurricanes in Slidell and vicinity, see 
page 90. 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Hood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 
Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Lake Pontchartrain Basin 
are listed below. 

Study Area 

Completed: Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge, 
and Baker 

East Baton Rouge Parish 

Harahan 

Jefferson Parish 



Study Area 



Completed: Jefferson Parish (Type 19) 

Kenner 

Metairie 

New Orleans (Inner-Harbor Area) 

Orleans Parish (Type 19) 

Remainder of Orleans Parish 
Under Way: Ascension Parish (East Bank) 

Gonzales 

Grammercy 

Lutcher 

Mandeville 

St. John the Baptist Parish 

Sorrento 



97 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



BAYOU BONFOUCA 
(New Orleans District) 

This study will determine if the existing project 
should be modified in any way at this time with 
particular reference to providing a more favorable 
alignment between Lake Pontchartrain and the 
shipyards at Slidell. The study has not yet been 
funded. 

BAYOU MANCHAC AND 
AMITE RIVER 

(New Orleans District) 

This study will determine the advisability of 
providing a navigable connection between the 
Mississippi River and Bayou Manchac and improving 
Bayou Manchac and Amite River for navigation. The 
study was initiated in 1976 and is scheduled for 
completion in 1979. 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN, 
JEFFERSON PARISH 

(New Orleans District) 

This study will determine the advisability of 
providing interim hurricane protection until 
completion of the Lake Pontchartrain and vicinity 
barrier. The study has not yet been funded. 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN, 
NORTH SHORE 

(New Orleans District) 

This study initiated in 1965 is to determine the 
advisability of improvements for flood control, small 
boat navigation, shoreline protection, and recreation 
along the north shore of the lake. The study is 
scheduled for completion in 1977. 

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN, 
WEST SHORE 
(New Orleans District) 

This study will comprise review of the Lake 
Pontchartrain and vicinity project with particular 
reference to providing for hurricane protection and 



flood control in St. James and St. John the Baptist 
Parishes and that part of St. Charles Parish west of 
the Bonnet Carre Spillway. The study has not yet 
been funded. 

MISSISSIPPI AND LOUISIANA 
ESTUARINE AREAS 

(New Orleans and Mobile Districts) 

This study will comprise a review of the report 
on the MR&T project and other pertinent reports, 
with a view toward determining the advisability of 
providing fresh water into Lakes Maurepas, 
Pontchartrain, Borgne, and Mississippi Sound areas in 
the interest of improving the wildlife and fisheries 
resources of this area. The study has not yet been 
funded. 

NEW ORLEANS-BATON ROUGE 
METROPOLITAN AREA 
(New Orleans District) 

This study, initiated in 1973, is directed toward 
comprehensive, multipurpose planning for the 
conservation, utilization, and development of the 
most intensively industrialized and populated sector 
in Louisiana. The study area encompasses 20 parishes 
in southeast Louisiana and includes the New Orleans 
and Baton Rouge standard metropolitan statistical 
areas and surrounding parishes. The authorizing 
resolution calls for the consideration of water and 
related land resources development for flood 
protection; flood plain management; navigation; 
regional water supply; regional wastewater and 
storm- water management faculties; recreation; water 
quality control; conservation and enhancement of 
fish and wildlife; and other measures for 
environmental enhancement, economic, and human 
resources development. In accomplishing the study, 
consideration will be given to urban planning 
activities within the study area, and any program 
developed will comprise components of 
comprehensive development plans formulated by 
Federal, State, and local agencies. The study is 
scheduled to be completed in 1979. 



98 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA AREA 

TO THE EAST ATCHAFALAYA 

BASIN PROTECTION LEVEE 






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MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA AREA TO THE 
EAST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN PROTECTION LEVEE 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA AREA TO 

THE EAST ATCHAFALAYA BASIN 

PROTECTION LEVEE 

Introduction 



This portion of the coastal area is located in 
the lower southeastern part of the State, west of the 
East Atchafalaya Basin protection levee. 
Improvements have been authorized for purposes of 
navigation, flood control, beach erosion control, 



hurricane protection, recreation, and other associated 
uses. Most of the area is low lying and control of 
the environment is and has been vital to the progress 
of the area. Individual projects are described below. 



Projects 



BARATARIA BAY WATERWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

The River and Harbor Act of March 1919 
authorized a dredged channel, 5 feet deep by 50 feet 
wide from Bayou Villars to Grand Isle, a distance 
of 37 miles. The project was completed in 1925 at 
a cost of $73,037. 

A modification was authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 3 July 1958, to provide for a channel 
approximately 37 miles long with a 12- foot depth 
and 125-foot width at mean low Gulf from its 
beginning at the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Grand 
Isle, following the route of the previous project to 
Mile 15.5 in Bayou St. Denis; thence by a relocated 
channel along the western shore of Barataria Bay and 
through Barataria Pass to the 12-foot depth contour 
in the Gulf of Mexico, with a 4.3-mile extension of 
the project to include the westerly 4.3 miles of Bayou 
Rigaud. The project modification was completed in 
November 1963. 

In addition, authority was granted in October 
1967, under provisions of the River and Harbor Act 



of 1915, to enlarge the bar channel from 125 to 250 
feet between Mile 1.26 and the 12-foot contour. The 
enlargement was accomplished in 1967 at a cost of 
$204,400. 

Average annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 
4,120,206 tons, consisting mainly of oil industry 
cargo and liquid sulphur. Opportunities for 
recreational boating and fishing are plentiful 
throughout the area. The Voyageur and the Mark 
Twain, two popular excursion boats, operate on 
regular schedules between New Orleans and Lafitte 
to show sightseers the colorful and historic bayou 
country. 

The waterway and adjacent waters below Lafitte 
are used extensively by commercial fishermen and 
oystermen. Special events, such as the pirogue races 
at Barataria and the fishing rodeos at Grand Isle, add 
to the value of the waterway for recreational purposes. 

BAYOU DUPRE 
(New Orleans District) 

The oil industry provides the major cargo on 



101 




GRAND ISLE 



this waterway although it is heavily used by 
recreational craft moving between Violet and Lake 
Borgne. In 1975, gasoline accounted for 73,852 tons 
of traffic, liquified gases for 51,470 tons, and marine 
shell for 18,361 tons. Average traffic from 1971-1975 
was 172,390 tons. 

This project includes a 6-foot-deep channel from 
the highway bridge at Violet to deep water in Lake 
Borgne, with widths of 80 feet in the canal and 
bayou and 100 feet in the lake. In addition to the 
7.3-mile channel, the project also includes a turning 
basin 100 feet wide and 200 feet long at Violet. The 
Violet Lock, a privately owned connection with the 
Mississippi River, was permanently closed in 1950. 
The project was completed in 1939 at a cost of 
$38,915. 

GRAND ISLE BEACH EROSION 
(New Orleans District) 

Because of Grand Isle's location and 
topography, improvements on the island are subject 



to damage from erosion along its gulf shore and 
passes and from the combined effects of winds and 
tides generated by hurricanes. Grand Isle is located 
on the Gulf of Mexico in Jefferson Parish and is one 
of the many low, irregular islands separated by bays, 
lagoons, and bayous which form a part of the 
shoreline of Louisiana. It is a base of operation for 
large offshore petroleum and sulphur industries and 
is a commercial fishing and sport fishing center. It 
is also an important recreational area for residents 
of Louisiana and nearby States. 

The current project, authorized in October 1976 
under the authority of Section 201 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1965 (PL 89-298), provides for 
hurricane protection and beach erosion for the island. 
The plan of improvement provides for the 
construction of a sandfilled berm and a vegetated and 
sandfill dune extending the length of Grand Isle's gulf 
shore and a jetty to stabilize the western end of the 
island at Caminada Pass. Work on these improvements 
has not yet begun. 



102 



BAYOU GROSSE TETE 

(New Orleans District) 

Snagging, clearing, and dredging were authorized 
in 1912 to secure a 29-mile navigation channel 5 feet 
deep at mean low water and 60 feet wide from the 
mouth of Bayou Plaquemine to 5 miles above the 
town of Maringouin. A channel 5 by 60 feet was 
completed between Mile and Mile 10.3 in 1914, 
and a channel 5 by 40 feet was completed to Mile 29 
in 1916. 

Completion of the channel between Mile 10.3 
and 29.0 to project dimensions (5 by 60 feet) has 
been delayed by lack of excavated material disposal 
areas within a reasonable distance of the necessary 
excavation. This uncompleted portion of the work 
has been classified as inactive. 

The cost of completed work is $29,392. The 
average annual traffic for 1971-1975 was 2,199 tons; 
there was no commercial traffic reported in 1972 and 
1973. 

BAYOU LAFOURCHE AND 

LAFOURCHE-JUMP WATERWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

Features of the original project authorized in 
1935 include permanent closure of the head of Bayou 
Lafourche without a lock; a channel 6 by 60 feet 
from Napoleonville to Lockport; a channel of the 
same dimensions from the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway at Larose to the Gulf of Mexico with a 
jettied entrance at Belle Pass; and the closure of Pass 
Fourchon. 

Construction of improvements for the bayou 
below Larose was completed in 1941 at a cost of 
$524,024. That portion of the project between 
Thibodaux and the head of the bayou at 
Donaldson ville was deauthorized in November 1967, 
and the work between Thibodaux and Lockport is 
inactive because of the lack of rights-of-way and 
excavated material disposal areas. 

The project was modified by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1960 to provide for a channel 9 feet 
deep and 100 feet wide from Golden Meadow to 
Leeville; a channel 12 feet deep and 125 feet wide 



from Leeville to the Gulf including modification and 
extension of the jetties to the 12- foot depth contour 
if advisable; an auxiliary channel 12 feet deep and 
125 feet wide extending from the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway west of Larose to Bayou Lafourche below 
Leeville, then eastward through the Southwest Canal, 
then through new land cuts and existing channels to 
connect with the Bayou Rigaud section of the 
Barataria Bay Waterway at Grand Isle, page 101. 

Enlargement of Bayou Lafourche between 
Golden Meadow and the Gulf of Mexico has been 
completed. Planning has been completed for the 
Leeville to Grand Isle channel; however, construction 
has not been initiated because of the failure of local 
interests to furnish rights-of-way for this reach. 
Dredging of the auxiliary channel between Larose and 
Leeville will begin upon the availability of 
rights-of-way and funds. The total estimated cost of 
the modified project is $16,284,000 of which 
$11,400,000 is Federal and $4,850,000 is 
non-Federal. An additional $34,000 will be spent by 
the U. S. Coast Guard for navigation aids. 

Offshore oil operations, sulphur mining, and 
commercial fishing are the industries which benefit 
from this project. In addition, the auxiliary channel 
will help alleviate navigation hazards along Bayou 
Lafourche. 

Planning is in progress to develop recreation and 
boating access to the project. Average annual traffic 
on Bayou Lafourche from 1971-1975 was 1,623,872. 

BAYOUS LALOUTRE, ST. MALO, 

AND YSCLOSKEY 

(New Orleans District) 

This 30-mile project has been used by oil 
companies as a safe, inland route for transporting 
crude oil, drilling equipment, and personnel. 

The channels are, however, presently used 
mainly by commercial trappers and fishermen en 
route to Lake Borgne, Chandeleur Sound, and 
intervening waterways and marsh areas. Excellent 
commercial launching and boat rental facilities are 
available in the area, further enhancing the 
recreational potential. Average annual traffic from 
1972-1975 was 34,228 tons. There was no commerce 



103 



reported in 1971. Traffic reported for 1975 was 
125,076 tons. 

Initially authorized in 1937 and modified in 
1945, the project was completed in May 1956 at a 
cost of $96,916. 

As modified, the project provides for a 5- by 
40-foot channel from deep water in Lake Borgne to 
the shoreline at the mouth of Bayou Yscloskey; a 
6- by 40-foot channel from deep water in Lake 
Borgne through Bayous St. Malo, LaLoutre, and 
Eloi, to deep water in Lake Eloi; and a 5- by 30-foot 
channel in Bayou LaLoutre between Hopedale and 
Bayou St. Malo. 

BAYOU SEGNETTE 
(New Orleans District) 

Improvements were made along this waterway 
under Section 3 of the River and Harbor Act of 1945 
(Public Law 79-14) in 1948 and 1951. Those made 
in 1948 at a cost of $20,279 consisted of 
reestablishing a usable navigation channel 6 feet deep 
and 40 feet wide between Bayou Bardeaux and the 
westward end of the Westwego Canal, a distance of 
about 6 miles. 

Improvements made in 1951 at a cost of 
$23,207 consisted of channel enlargement to provide 
an 8- by 50-foot clear channel between Miles 1.5 and 
5.5. 

Total cost of improvement along Bayou 
Segnette was $43,486. 



The channel begins at the southern end of 
Company Canal at Westwego and follows the existing 
channel of Bayou Segnette (including its cutoffs) 
southward to approximately Mile 5.6, thence runs 
southerly, via new land cut lying to the east of Lake 
Salvador, to the Intracoastal Waterway at Bayou 
Villars and the head of the Barataria Bay Waterway. 

The project, 12.2 miles long, affords a shorter 
and direct route for the larger and modern fishing 
and shrimping boats to the packing and canning 
industries on Bayou Segnette and Company Canal at 
Westwego. The average annual traffic on the 
waterway from 1971-1975 was 3,234 tons. Yearly 
traffic varies widely; 1974 traffic was 6,385 tons; and 
1975 traffic was 1,625 tons. 

BAYOU TERRE AUX BOEUFS 

(New Orleans District) 

This bayou, which serves as a boundary line 
between Plaquemines and St. Bernard Parishes, was 
snagged and cleared between Miles 10.5 and 18.25, 
and excavated, snagged, and cleared between Miles 
18.25 and 19.5. Authorized under the provisions of 
Section 3, River and Harbor Act of 1945 (Public Law 
79-14), this 5- by 50-foot navigation channel was 
completed in 1951 at a cost of $24,832. 

BAYOU TERREBONNE 

(New Orleans District) 



BAYOU SEGNETTE WATERWAY 
(New Orleans District) 

Construction of a 9-foot-deep channel over a 
bottom width of 60 feet was authorized by the River 
and Harbor Act of 1954. 

The authorization for this project provides for 
maintenance to a 6-foot depth only until such time 
as, in the discretion of the Chief of Engineers, 
maintenance to a greater depth (not to exceed 9 feet) 
is justified. An interim channel 8 feet deep over a 
bottom width of 80 feet, including overdepth, was 
completed in August 1957 at a cost of $238,828. 
The estimated cost of construction for the authorized 
project is $374,000 (1957). 



Operational supplies for drilling for crude oil 
comprise the major cargo on this waterway which 
was completed in 1916 at a cost of $120,089. The 
waterway also serves as an access route for fishing 
and hunting in the coastal region. Average annual 
traffic from 1971-1975 was 629,091 tons. 

The Bayou Terrebonne project consists of a 
6-foot-deep channel of suitable width from Bush 
Canal to the St. Louis Cypress Company Bridge at 
Houma, a distance of 24 miles. The channel was 
authorized in 1910 with modifications in 1912, 1913, 
1959, and 1964. The 1959 and 1964 modifications 
authorized abandonment of about 1 mile of the 
channel in Houma. 



104 



CHOCTAW BAYOU 
(New Orleans District) 

This Section 205 project will provide flood 
protection to an area of 9,200 acres just west of Port 
Allen by clearing and snagging and channel 
excavation on Choctaw Bayou and its tributaries. The 
project was approved on 11 April 1968, and plans 
and specifications have been prepared. Construction 
was initiated in June 1973 and completed in April 
1976. The total Federal cost of the project was 
$840,700; the total non-Federal cost has not been 
finalized. 

LAROSE TO GOLDEN MEADOW 

HURRICANE PROTECTION 

(New Orleans District) 

This project, authorized by the Flood Control 
Act of 1965, protects highly developed residential 
and commercial areas along Bayou Lafourche 
between Larose and Golden Meadow from storm 
tides and hurricane floodwaters. The project includes 
enlargement of 3 miles of existing levees, and 
construction of about 38 miles of new levees, 
8 miles of low interior levees, two major floodgates 
in Bayou Lafourche, and several flap-gated drainage 
culverts. The estimated Federal cost (30 June 1976) 
is $26,900,000; the non-Federal cost, including a cash 
contribution of $6,070,000, is $11,600,000. Project 
construction was initiated in January 1975 and is 
currently scheduled for completion in 1987. 



two lifts. Construction of the first lift was initiated 
in August 1971 and was completed in January 1974. 
Work on the second lift has not begun. The estimated 
project cost (30 June 1976) is $1,000,000 Federal, 
and $5,020,000 non-Federal. 

HOUMA NAVIGATION CANAL 

(New Orleans District) 

The channel, 15 feet deep at mean low Gulf 
level over a bottom width of 150 feet, allows 
navigation from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway near 
the western edge of Houma to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Federal maintenance of this canal, completed by 
non-Federal interests in 1962, was officially assumed 
in 1963. Maintenance cost to date is $4,065,796. 

During the period from 1971-1975, traffic on 
this waterway averaged 2,943,706 tons annually with 
the oil industry contributing the major cargo. 

LITTLE CAILLOU BAYOU 

(New Orleans District) 

Completed in 1929, this 20-mile channel, 5 feet 
deep and 40 feet wide, from Robinson Canal to the 
head of Little Caillou Bayou cost $77,761. Average 
annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 1,037,935 tons; 
1975 traffic was 834,366 tons. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER- 
GULF OUTLET 

(New Orleans District) 



HARVEY CANAL-BARATARIA 
LEVEE 

(New Orleans District) 

This project consists of construction of a levee 
along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in Jefferson 
Parish between Roussel Pumping Station and Coun- 
sins Canal, enlargement of the existing levee from 
Counsins Canal to Mile 6, and a new levee from Mile 
6 to Louisiana State Highway 45 near Crown Point. 
The plan of improvement also includes construction 
of a new pumping station by local interests. 

The levee embankment will be constructed in 



New Orleans is the gateway to the great system 
of inland waterways of the central valley of the 
Nation. Adequate outlets to the Gulf of Mexico are 
essential for economical transportation to and from 
this port. The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet affords 
a tidewater outlet to the Gulf that is about 37 miles 
shorter than the Mississippi River route. 

The channel also provides a potential for harbor 
development large enough for dispersion of docks and 
cargo-handling facilities, thus allowing more flexible 
operation for inland and seagoing commerce. Sailing 
time, ship turnaround time, navigation hazards, and 
congestion all tend to be reduced by the project. 



105 



The project was authorized by Public Law 455, 
approved March 1956, as a feature of the project, 
"Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to Gulf of Mexico" 
(page 23). It consists of a ship channel 36 feet deep 
and 500 feet wide extending approximately 76 miles 
in a land and water cut from the junction of the 
Inner Harbor Navigation Canal and the Gulf 
Intracoastal Waterway in New Orleans to the 
-38-foot contour in the Gulf. Jetties for the 
reduction of shoaling, a turning basin, and a lock and 
connecting channel with the Mississippi River are 
salient features of the project. 

From the junction of the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway and the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, the 
channel follows the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to 
the vicinity of Highway 47 (Paris Road), from 
whence it proceeds in a generally southeasterly 
direction along the south shore of Lake Borgne 
through the marshes, across Chandeleur Sound 
between Breton and Grand Gosier Islands, and to the 



-38-foot contour in the Gulf of Mexico. In the open 
waters of the Gulf, the channel dimensions increase 
to 38 by 600 feet. 

Construction of the channel was initiated in 
March 1958. An interim channel 36 by 250 feet was 
opened to traffic in July 1963. Enlargement of the 
channel to full project dimensions was completed in 
January 1968. 

The turning basin has been constructed at the 
intersection of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet 
channel and the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal. A 
fixed, high-level 4-lane highway bridge at Paris Road 
has also been constructed under a reimbursable 
agreement with the Louisiana Department of 
Highways. The jetties have been completed to the 
6-foot contour. The south dike has been extended 
about 5.3 miles (Mile 14.9 to Mile 20.2). 

A study is in progress to determine the 
feasibility of replacing the existing Inner Harbor 
Navigation Canal lock which has dimensions of 




MISSISSIPPI RIVER-GULF OUTLET 



106 




MICHOUD CANAL 



74 feet by 626 feet, with a lock 1 50 feet wide and 
1,200 feet long. 

Traffic on the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet 
increased from 3,094,164 tons in 1969 to 5,386,829 
tons in 1975. The average annual traffic from 
1971-1975 was 4,693,919 tons. Major types of cargo 
moving over the channel include crude petroleum, 
primary metal products, and grain. The total project 
costs are estimated (30 June 1976) to be 
$273,000,000 Federal, and $100,200,000 
non-Federal. In addition, the U. S. Coast Guard is 
to provide navigation aids at a cost of $37,000. 
Federal funds in the amount of $69,420,000 have 
been allotted through June 1976. 

The Board of Commissioners of the Port of New 
Orleans has established a bulk commodity handling 
facility on the channel reach, and is planning a large 
expenditure for the creation of a "Centroport" which 
would locate extensive port facilities on the channel. 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER-GULF 
OUTLET, MICHOUD CANAL 

(New Orleans District) 

The project provides a 36- by 250-foot ship 
channel, extending from the Mississippi River-Gulf 
Outlet along a part of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 
and through the Michoud Canal. An 800- by 800-foot 
turning basin is located in the northern end of the 
project. 

Michoud Canal currently serves barge traffic to 
and from plants manufacturing chemicals and 
portland cement. The channel serves the added 
purpose of providing direct foreign export of 
fertilizers. Public wharf facilities are to abut the 
turning basin. 

The project was authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1968. The total construction cost was 
$2,770,000. Construction was initiated in March 



107 



1974 and was completed in November 1974. 

NEW ORLEANS TO VENICE 

HURRICANE PROTECTION 

(New Orleans District) 

Because the developed areas along the 
Mississippi River below New Orleans are particularly 
vulnerable to hurricane flooding, increased protection 
for four reaches was authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1962 under the title "Mississippi River 
Delta at and Below New Orleans." Features of the 
project include increasing the height and cross section 
of the existing back levees, constructing new back 
levees, and modifying existing drainage facilities. As 
part of the project, a barrier levee on the east bank 
of the Mississippi River would be constructed to 
exclude tidal surges which might come across the 
marshes to the east. 

The total project costs are estimated to be 
$91,000,000 for the Federal Government and 
$39,000,000 for non-Federal interests. Location and 
estimated total cost for the four reaches to be 
improved are: 





Estimated 


Location 


Cost 


Reach A 




City Price to Empire 


$ 34,900,000 


Reach Bl 




Empire to Fort Jackson 


33,300,000 


Reach B2 




Fort Jackson to Venice 


27,700,000 


Reach C 




Phoenix to Bohemia 


13,660,000 


East Bank Barrier Plan 




Bohemia to Mile 10 




Above Head of Passes 


20,360,000 


Total 


$130,000,000 



Planning is under way for all reaches. 
Construction was initiated in August 1968 on Reach 
Bl near Empire. The Empire floodgate on Reach Bl 
has been completed and was placed in operation in 
early 1976. The remaining construction is continuing 
on this reach. Construction was initiated on Reach 
B2 in July 1974 and is continuing. Under an 



agreement with the Corps of Engineers, the initial 
phase of construction of Reach C leve"e was 
accomplished to an interim grade by local interests. 
Local interests have since, under the second phase, 
constructed to project grade half of Reach C, with 
construction of the remaining reach to project grade 
to be initiated in 1977. Local interests will be given 
credit for cost incurred for this reach as part of the 
30 percent required non-Federal participation for the 
entire project. 

WATERWAY FROM EMPIRE TO 

THE GULF OF MEXICO 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized in 1946 and completed in 1950 at 
a cost of $1,068,142, this project consists of a 9- 
by 80-foot channel from Doullut Canal near Empire 
southward to the Gulf. Extension of the existing 
jetties from the 6-foot contour to the 9-foot contour 
is authorized. The jetties would be extended if and 
when it becomes apparent that such extension will 
be more economical than maintenance dredging. 

The needs of a large fishing fleet, which handled 
101,168 tons of seafood in 1975, and those of 
adjacent offshore oil operations are served by this 
10-mile channel from Empire to the Gulf of Mexico. 
Crude petroleum accounted for 79 percent of the 
commerce reported in 1975. The Mississippi River 
Delta and the Gulf of Mexico in the vicinity of 
Empire abound in opportunities for fishing and 
hunting, and tthe waterway is heavily utilized by 
sportsmen throughout the entire year. Average annual 
traffic for the period 1971-1975 was 418,514 tons; 
traffic in 1975 was 1,103,503 tons. 

WATERWAY FROM THE INTRACOASTAL 

WATERWAY TO BAYOU DULAC-BAYOUS 

GRAND CAILLOU AND LE CARPE, LA. 

(New Orleans District) 

This waterway, 5 feet deep and 40 feet wide, 
extends from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway at 
Houma, through Bayous Le Carpe, Pelton, and Grand 
Caillou to Bayou Dulac, a distance of about 16.3 
miles. The project was completed in 1938 at a cost 
of $51,300. 



109 



Modification of this project to provide a channel 
10 feet deep and 45 feet wide in Bayou Le Carpe 
from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to the Houma 
Navigation Canal was authorized by the River and 



Harbor Act of 1962. The modification was completed 
in 1964 at a Federal cost of $78,342. The average 
annual traffic over this waterway from 1971-1975 
was 645,695 tons. 



Small Projects 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING PROJECT 

Under authority of Section 2 of the Flood 



Control Act of 1937, and subsequent modifications, 
8.2 miles of Bayou L' Eau Bleu were enlarged in 
1948 at a cost of $44,081. 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Flood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 

Study Area 

Completed: Gretna 

Harvey-Gretna 

Louisiana Gulf Coast 

St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 1, Verret 
to Hopedale-Delacroix 

St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 2, Violet 
to Verret 

St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 3, 
Orleans-St. Bernard Parish line 
to Violet 

St. Bernard Parish (Type 19) 



Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Mississippi Delta area to the 
East Atchafalaya basin protection levee are as follows: 

Study Area 

Completed: Westwego 

Under Way: Ascension Parish (West Bank) 
Donaldsonville 
Houma 

Lafourche Parish 
Lockport 

Plaquemines Parish 
Terrebonne Parish 
Thibodaux 



110 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



BARATARIA BAY WATERWAY, 
DUPRE CUT 
(New Orleans District) 

This study, initiated in 1972, comprises a review 
of the existing project to determine the advisability 
of providing bank stabilization along Bayou Barataria 
and Bayou Dupont. Completion is scheduled for 
1979. 

BARATARIA BAY WATERWAY, 
ENTRANCE CHANNEL 

(New Orleans District) 

This study, initiated in 1972, comprises a review 
of the existing project to determine the advisability 
of enlarging the entrance channel. Completion of the 
study has not yet been scheduled. 

BAYOU BARATARIA, 
BAYOU PEROT 

(New Orleans District) 

The study is under way to determine the 
advisability of providing a navigation channel from 
Barataria Bay Waterway in the vicinity of Lafitte to 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway at Bayou Perot. The 
study is scheduled for completion in 1978. 

BAYOU CHEVREUIL 

(New Orleans District) 

This study is to determine the feasibility of 
providing channel and bank improvements along 
Bayou Chevreuil in the interest of flood control and 
drainage. The study has not yet been funded. 

BAYOU GRAND CAILLOU 
(New Orleans District) 

This study is to determine the feasibility of 



enlarging and realigning Bayou Grand Caillou from 
the Houma Navigation Canal to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The study has not yet been funded. 

BAYOU LAFOURCHE AND 
LAFOURCHE-JUMP WATERWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

This study will review the report of the Chief 
of Engineers on Bayou Lafourche and 
Lafourche-Jump Waterway and other pertinent 
reports, to determine whether any modifications of 
the recommendations contained therein are advisable 
at this time with particular reference to providing 
adequate channel dimensions to meet the needs of 
existing and future navigation. The study has not yet 
been funded. 

GULF COAST DEEPWATER 

FACILITIES 
(Mississippi River Commission) 

This study was conducted to determine 
deepwater port facilities for Texas, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, which would be 
required to accommodate very large bulk cargo 
carriers including, but not limited to, offshore 
facilities. The report on the study is presently 
under review in the Office of the Chief of 
Engineers. 

GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY. 
LOUISIANA AND TEXAS 

(New Orleans District) 

This study will investigate the advisability of 
modifying the existing project in any way at this 
time, particularly with regard to widening and 
deepening the existing and/or authorized channels 
status. The study was initiated in 1976 and is 
scheduled for completion in 1983. 



Ill 



GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY 

LOUISIANA SECTION, HIGH-LEVEL 

HIGHWAY CROSSINGS 

(New Orleans District) 

This study is under way to determine whether 
any project modifications are advisable in order to 
provide high-level highway crossings at strategic 
points, in the interest of safety from hurricanes and 
to improve operation of the waterway. The study is 
scheduled for completion in 1978. 



improvements, or modifications to existing 
improvements, in the interest of hurricane protection, 
prevention of saltwater intrusion, preservation of fish 
and wildlife, prevention of erosion, and related water 
resources purposes. The study is scheduled for 
completion in 1984. 

WEST BANK OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER, 

VICINITY OF NEW ORLEANS 

(New Orelans District) 



LOUISIANA COASTAL AREA 
(New Orleans District) 

This study is under way to review reports on 
coastal area projects to determine the advisability of 



This study was initiated in 1966 to determine 
the advisability of providing additional hurricane 
protection for the area on the west bank of the 
Mississippi River at and below New Orleans. The 
study is scheduled for completion in 1978. 



112 



VERMILION RIVER 
AND BAYOU TECHE BASINS 



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10 



SCALE OF MILES 



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10 



20 



30 



VERMILION RIVER AND BAYOU TECHE BASINS 



VERMILION RIVER AND BAYOU 
TECHE BASINS 

Introduction 



This area comprises the drainage basins of 
Vermilion River and Bayou Teche. The upper portion 
of the area is composed of alluvial ridges along Bayou 
Teche, prairies, and hills; and the lower portion 
primarily consists of coastal marshes. Navigation, 
flood control, municipal and industrial water supply, 



water-quality control, irrigation, recreation, and fish 
and wildlife are the purposes served by Corps of 
Engineers projects in the Teche-Vermilion Basins. 
Individual improvements are described in subsequent 
paragraphs. 



Projects 



BAYOU TECHE 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized in 1934 and prior years, this project 
consists of a channel 8 feet deep and 80 feet wide 
from the mouth of the stream to New Iberia, thence 
6 feet deep and 60 feet wide to Keystone Lock, and 
thence 6 feet deep and 50 feet wide on the bottom 
to Arnaudville, and a lock and dam. 

The Keystone Lock and Dam was completed in 
1913. All channel improvement work above Keystone 
Dam was completed in 1916. Channel improvement 
from the mouth to about 3 miles below New Iberia 
was completed in 1920. 

An interim channel, 8 by 60 feet, was dredged 
along the 3-mile reach below New Iberia and an 
interim channel of 6 by 50 feet was dredged between 
New Iberia and Keystone Lock, a distance of 
approximately 17 miles. 

The authorized project is about 71 percent 
complete. Cost of the existing project to date is 



$754,330. The uncompleted portion of the work is 
inactive. 

Average annual traffic on this waterway, 
1971-1975, was 612,618 tons. The major cargo in 
1975 included marine shells, crude petroleum, and 
sugar. 

BAYOU TECHE AND 

VERMILION RIVER 

(New Orleans District) 

This multiple-purpose project, completed in 
March 1957 at a cost of $2,891,922, provides 
improvements for navigation, flood control, and 
increased water supply for irrigation. 

Specifically, the improvements consist of an 8- 
by 80-foot navigable channel from Vermilion Bay to 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and a 9- by 100- foot 
channel from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to a 
fixed bridge located 400 feet south of the Southern 
Pacific Lines bridge at Lafayette. The act also 



115 



authorized improvement of the nonnavigable channel 
of Vermilion River (also called Bayou Vermilion) and 
Bayou Fusilier from Lafayette to Bayou Teche; 
enlargement of Bayou Teche from about Mile 103.8 
(2 miles below Arnaudville) to Port Barre (Mile 
124.8); and raising the crest of Keystone Dam to 
permit increased diversion of water from Bayou 
Teche through Ruth Canal to the Vermilion River. 
As a result of the flood of March 1947, which 
occurred when flood control improvements on 
Vermilion River were substantially complete, the 
Vermilion was further enlarged between the Gulf 
Intracoastal Waterway and Youngs Coulee, Mile 17.5. 
Enlargement of the channel necessitated the 
construction of new highway bridges at Woodlawn 
and Milton and the modification of numerous other 
bridges. 

The project waterways provide excellent 
recreational sources and are extensively used for 
boating, waterskiing, and fishing. Bayou Teche, an 
abandoned course of the Mississippi River, is 
particularly attractive. Its well-sloped banks, wide 
meander bends, stately moss-draped oaks, and 
historical heritage attract visitors from all parts of 
the country. Evangeline State Park and New Iberia 
City Park are located on the bayou and add to its 
recreational allure. A project has been authorized 
(page 118, "Teche Vermilion Basins") which will 
alleviate a pollution problem currently experienced 
in low-water seasons. The Vermilion River provides 
numerous boating facilities; among them are the 
Lafayette Boat Club, the Vermilion Boat Club, and 
several marinas in the vicinity of Intracoastal City. 
Planning is in progress to further develop recreation 
and boating access to Bayou Teche and Vermilion 
River. 

Cumulative benefits from flood damages 
prevented through June 1976 are estimated at 
$2,650,000. The average annual traffic from 1971- 
1975 was 1,319,818 tons. Crude petroleum, marine 
shells, and clay were the major cargoes in 1975. 

BAYOU VERMILION 

(New Orleans District) 

This 5-1/2-foot channel from Vermilion Bay to 



Lafayette was completed in 1896 at a cost of 
$34,900. The project has been superseded by the 
navigation features of the Bayou Teche and 
Vermilion River project described above. 

FRESHWATER BAYOU 

(New Orleans District) 

Freshwater Bayou Channel and Lock gives 
access to petroleum, gas, salt, and sulphur resources 
in the Gulf. The project is also a useful route for 
fishermen and trappers. 

Consisting of a 12- by 125-foot waterway 
between the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in the 
vicinity of Vermilion River and the Gulf of Mexico, 
the waterway generally follows the existing channels 
of Schooner Bayou Cutoff, Schooner Bayou, Sixmile 
Canal, Belle Isle Canal, and Freshwater Bayou. An 
84- by 600- by 16-foot lock constructed in the 
vicinity of Beef Ridge near the Gulf of Mexico 
prevents saltwater intrusion. Jetties to the 6-foot 
depth contour are authorized if and when justified 
by excessive maintenance of the offshore channel. 

Cost of existing project (except for construction 
of jetties at a later date, if necessary) was $7,1 16,224 
Federal and $16,060 cash contribution. Estimated 
cost of construction of jetties (July 1971) is 
$3,118,100. Estimated non-Federal cost for the 
existing project is $171,000. In addition, the Coast 
Guard is to provide navigational aids at an estimated 
cost of $19,100. 

Channel excavation between the Gulf 
Intracoastal Waterway and the lock site was 
completed in March 1965. The channel from the lock 
to the Gulf of Mexico was completed in October 
1967. The lock and channel were opened to 
navigation in July 1968. In 1975, 291,070 tons of 
cargo traveled this waterway. The average annual 
traffic from 1971-1975 was 407,355 tons. 

PETIT ANSE, TIGRE, AND 

CARLIN BAYOUS 

(New Orleans District) 

These waterways are used for access to fishing 
and hunting areas, and boating and skiing are 



116 




FRESHWATER LOCK 



becoming more and more popular in the area. 
Average annual traffic on the project waterways from 
1971-1975 was 1,579,010 tons. 

Authorized in 1935, and modified in 1937, 
1945, 1948, and 1960, the project currently provides 
for a 9- by 80-foot channel in Bayou Petit Anse from 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to the north end of 
Avery Island; a 9- by 80-foot channel in Bayou Carlin 
from Bayou Petit Anse to Lake Peigneur; a harbor 
of refuge at Delcambre, Louisiana; and a 7- by 
60-foot channel from the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 
via Mcllhenny Canal to deep water in Vermilion Bay. 
These improvements were completed in March 1962 
at a Federal cost of $392,247. Mooring facilities have 
been constructed in the harbor of refuge by 
non-Federal interests. 

This project was further modified in October 
1976 under authority of Section 201 of the Flood 
Control Act of 1965. Modifications authorized 
included enlargement of Bayou Petit Anse from the 
entrance of the Avery Island Salt Mine Canal to the 



Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to 12 by 125 feet; 
enlargement of Bayou Carlin from Bayou Petit Anse 
to Lake Peigneur to 12 by 125 feet except within 
the town limits of Delcambre where the enlargement 
will be 12 by 80 feet; and replacement of the 
railroad bridge across Bayou Carlin at Delcambre 
with a vertical lift bridge to provide vertical 
clearance of 73 feet and horizontal clearance of 
80 feet. Work on the modification has not yet 
begun. 

PINHOOK BRIDGE 

(New Orleans District) 

Scour, caused by enlargement of the Vermilion 
River above and below the bridge, was threatening 
the stability of the bridge approaches. Bank 
protection works, consisting of degrading both banks 
and covering with riprap, were completed in 1950 
at a cost of $25,287. 



117 



TECHE-VERMILION BASINS 
(New Orleans District) 

Authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1966, 
this feature provides for the diversion of 
supplemental water from the Atchafalaya River 
upstream of Krotz Springs to Bayou Courtableau just 
west of the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee 
for municipal, industrial, irrigation, and water quality 
control uses in Bayou Teche, Vermilion River, and 
in the west side borrow pit along the West 
Atchafalaya Basin protection levee. 

The initial improvements are to be constructed 
by the Federal Government at an estimated Federal 
cost (30 June 1976) of $18,900,000. The 
non-Federal cost is $730,000. The improvements 
include a 1,300-cubic-feet-per-second pumping 
station at the Atchafalaya River, a leveed conveyance 
channel with an inverted siphon under State Canal; 
a bridge at U. S. Highway 71; a control structure 
through the West Atchafalaya Basin protection levee; 
and three downstream control structures: a gated 
culvert between Bayou Courtableau and the West 



Atchafalaya Basin protection levee borrow pit to 
the south, a weir in Bayou Fusilier, and a nav- 
igable gate in Loreauville Canal (see illustration on 
page 119). 

The three new control structures and the 
existing non-Federal Ruth Canal Control Structure 
are to be operated to distribute the supplementary 
water supply as needed. Operation and maintenance 
of the completed works and expansion of the 
pumping station from 1,050 to 1,300 cubic feet per 
second will be the responsibility of non-Federal 
interests. Construction was begun in 1976. 

VERMILION LOCK 
(New Orleans District) 

Vermilion Lock is located in the Atchafalaya 
River-Sabine River section of the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway about 2 miles west of the Vermilion River. 
This lock is 1,182 feet long, 56 feet wide, with a 
depth over the sill of 1 1.3 feet below mean low Gulf 
datum. Because of its limitations of sill depth and 
width, the lock is a hindrance to navigation. Average 




VERMILION LOCK 



118 



FRESH WATER SUPPLY 

FOR THE 
TECHE-VERMILION BASINS 





ARTIST'S CONCEPTION OF NEW VERMILION LOCK 



annual traffic through the lock from 1971-1975 was 
40,134,202 tons. 

A replacement lock was approved by the 
Secretary of the Army in May 1967, under authority 
contained in Section 6 of the River and Harbor Act 
of May 1909. The new lock would be located just 
south of the existing waterway and just west of the 
existing lock. The authorized lock would be 75 feet 
wide, 1,200 feet long, and would have a depth over 
sill of 15 feet below mean low Gulf elevation. 



In a restudy of the lock size, it was 
recommended that the width be increased from 75 
to 1 1 feet to meet current demands. This new lock 
size was authorized in the Water Resource 
Development Act of 1976. Estimated costs for the 
replacement of Vermilion Lock are $20,600,000 
Federal and $83,000 non-Federal. Construction of 
the new lock is tentatively scheduled to begin in 
late 1978. 



Small Projects 



SNAGGING AND CLEARING 
PROJECT 

Under authority of Section 2 of the Flood 



Control Act of 1937, and subsequent modifications, 
6.9 miles of Bayou des Cyprairres was cleared, 
snagged, and enlarged in 1953 at a cost of 
$42,498. 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



FRANKLIN 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the 
Franklin area initiated in 1976 has been suspended, 
and in lieu thereof, a flood insurance study for the 
city of Franklin has been initiated. 



to Mile 63. Most of the flooding in the area is due 
to headwater flooding, although high stages in the 
Vermilion River can cause backwater flooding. 

SCOTT AND LAFAYETTE 
PARISH 

(New Orleans District 



LAFAYETTE 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the 
Lafayette area was completed and published in 
September 1973 at a cost of $45,722. 

The study area encompassed drainage from 
Vermilion River and tributaries beginning along 
Vermilion River at Mile 42 and continuing upstream 



A flood plain information report on the Scott 
area was completed and published in September 1974 
at a cost of $40,000. 

The study included the drainage area of Coulee 
He des Cannes and tributaries beginning with Coulee 
lie des Cannes at its confluence with Vermilion River 
and continuing upstream to Mile 16. The report 
indicated that the area is subject to headwater and 
backwater flooding. 



120 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Flood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 



Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Vermilion River and Bayou 
Teche basins are listed below. 



Under Way: 



Study Area 



Completed: None 



Abbeville 

Baldwin 

Franklin 



Study Area 



Under Way: 



Jeanerette 

Lafayette 

Lafayette Parish 

Marksville 

St. Mary Parish 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



BAYOUS RAPIDES, BOEUF, AND 

COCODRIE AND OUTLETS 

(New Orleans District) 



Avoyelles Parishes project. These projects will have 
a significant impact on flood control and drainage 
in the project area. 



Tne study is investigating the advisability of 
additional improvements for flood control, drainage, 
and related purposes. Measures under consideration 
include modifications, extensions, or additions to 
existing flood control features. This study has been 
suspended pending completion of postauthorization 
studies on the Bayou Cocodrie and Tributaries 
project and Eastern Rapides and South-Central 



BAYOU SALE RIDGE 

(New Orleans District) 

This study is to determine the advisability of 
modifying Bayou Sale from the Gulf Intracoastal 
Waterway to the Gulf of Mexico to improve flood 
control, drainage, and hurricane protection. The 
study has not yet been funded. 



121 



MERMENTAU RIVER BASIN 



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SCALE OF MILES 



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I I I 



MERMENTAU RIVER BASIN 



MERMENTAU RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



This basin, located between the Teche- Vermilion 
and Calcasieu Basins, comprises a controlled system 
for the drainage of Mermentau River and its 
tributaries. Four structures, Catfish Point Control 
Structure, Schooner Bayou Control Structure, 
Calcasieu Lock, and Vermilion Lock, control the 



impoundment of winter runoff for irrigation use in 
the summertime. The upper portion of the basin 
consists of hills and prairies and the lower portion 
primarily consists of coastal marshes. Corps of 
Engineers projects in the basin, consisting primarily 
of navigation improvements, are described below. 



Projects 



BAYOU PLAQUEMINE BRULE 

(New Orleans District) 

The project provides for a channel 6 feet deep 
and 60 feet wide from the mouth to a point near 
Crowley, a distance of about 19 miles. The project 
was completed in 1915 at a cost of $33,410. In 
recent years the bayou has been cleared of snags and 
overhanging trees and the channel straightened by the 
State of Louisiana for flood control. Average annual 
traffic for the period 1971-1975 was 46,367 tons. 
Principal cargo on this waterway is crude petroleum. 

BAYOU QUEUE DE TORTUE 
(New Orleans District) 

No channel dimensions are specified in this 
14-mile channel project which provides for the 
removal of obstructions from the mouth of Bayou 
Queue de Tortue to the Southern Pacific Lines bridge 
at Riceville, and the dredging of 10 cutoffs. The 
project was completed in 1923 at a cost of $33,355. 



Maintenance and clearing and snagging were begun 
in June 1969. The controlling depth will be 5 feet 
mean low Gulf for the full project length. The average 
annual traffic over the waterway, 1952-1955, was 
2,900 tons. No commerce has been reported since 
1955. 

INLAND WATERWAY FROM 
FRANKLIN TO THE 
MERMENTAU RIVER 
(New Orleans District) 

Completed in 1924, this waterway provides a 
5- by 40-foot channel from Bayou Teche near 
Franklin through Hanson Canal, Bayou Portage, the 
Intracoastal Canal, Schooner Bayou Cutoff, Schooner 
Bayou, and a new land cut to White Lake; then 
through White, Turtle, Alligator, and Collicon Lakes 
and connecting channels; and finally through Grand 
Lake to the Mermentau River at the northern 
entrance to the lake. Total cost of construction was 
$249,100. 



125 



This project has been largely superseded by the 
"Intracoastal Waterway" project. The part of the 
project west of Vermilion River was incorporated 
into the "Mermentau River" project by the River and 
Harbor Act of 1946. Under authority of Public Law 
85-837, the Hanson Canal and Lock were transferred 
to the Police Jury of St. Mary Parish in August 1959. 

Average annual traffic on the waterway, 
1959-1963, was 591,000 tons. Traffic since 1964 is 
included in the Mermentau River total. 

MERMENTAU RIVER 
(New Orleans District) 

Work authorized under this project includes 
channel improvement of the Mermentau River below 
Grand Lake and existing channels between Grand and 
White Lakes and between White Lake and Vermilion 
Bay to provide channels with areas of 3,000 square 
feet below mean low Gulf level for floodflows; the 
construction of control structures in the enlarged 
channels near Grand Lake (at Catfish Point) and the 
Schooner Bayou Lock to prevent saltwater intrusion 



into the Mermentau Basin; the enlargement of 
Schooner Bayou Cutoff and North Prong of Schooner 
Bayou to provide 6- by 60-foot channels for 
navigation; and for the incorporation of the 
completed project, "Waterway from White Lake to 
Pecan Island," and that part of the completed project 
"Inland Waterway from Franklin to the Mermentau 
River," west of the Vermilion River. This project was 
completed in 1952 at a cost of $4,631,910. 

The Catfish Point Control Structure has three 
sets of gates, each set having a width of 56 feet. The 
sill elevations of two sets are at 1 5 feet below mean 
low Gulf level, and the other set at 10 feet below 
mean low Gulf level. The Calcasieu and Vermilion 
Locks were completed in 1950 and 1933, 
respectively, under the navigation project, "Gulf 
Intracoastal Waterway Between Apalachee Bay, 
Florida, and the Mexican Border," described on page 
145. These locks were constructed to prevent 
saltwater intrusion into the Mermentau Basin through 
the Intracoastal Waterway, and are operated in 
conjunction with the Schooner Bayou and Catfish 
Point Control Structures for regulation of the water 




NAVIGATION ON THE GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY 



126 




CATFISH POINT CONTROL STRUCTURE 




SCHOONER BAYOU CONTROL STRUCTURE 



levels in Grand and White Lakes. The gates of 
Schooner Bayou Lock, a feature of the incorporated 
portion of the "Inland Waterway from Franklin to 
the Mermentau River," were permanently closed and 
traffic routed through the control structure in 1951. 
The cumulative benefits through June 1976 are 
estimated at $17,969,000 and are comprised of 
$17,021,000 (irrigation benefits), $1,448,000 (flood 
damages prevented), less $500,000 for estimated 
costs of delays to navigation at Calcasieu Lock. The 
average annual traffic from 1971-1975 was 1,316,924 
tons. 

MERMENTAU RIVER, AND 
BAYOUS NEZPIQUE AND 

DES CANNES 
(New Orleans District) 

This project consists of removal of obstructions 
to navigation in the natural channel of the 
Mermentau River from its head at the junction of 
Bayous Nezpique and Des Cannes to the Gulf, a 
distance of about 71.5 miles; in Bayou Nezpique for 
the lower 25 miles; and in Bayou Des Cannes from 
its mouth to the Evangeline Bridge, a distance of 
about 8.5 miles; improvement of the channel in lower 
Mud Lake by dredging and by construction of a brush 
dam to concentrate the action of the current; removal 
of a portion of the wrecked dam at Mile 7; and a 
channel 9 feet deep at mean low Gulf level and 100 
feet wide from the Intracoastal Waterway to the 
junction of Bayous Nezpique and Des Cannes. 

The project was completed in 1935 at a cost 
of $58,000. Average annual traffic along this project, 
1971-1975, was 911,930 tons. 

Boating and skiing are popular activities along 
these waterways and facilities are maintained by the 
boat clubs of Jennings, Crowley, Eunice, and Lake 
Arthur. Preliminary plans for additional access and 
recreation facilities such as boat-launching ramps and 
picnicking areas have been completed and approved. 
Local cooperation is required for the implementation 
of these plans. 

That part of the project in the lower Mermentau 
River below Grand Lake has been superseded by the 
project, "Mermentau River," described above. A 



modification of the project authorized under the 
River and Harbor Act of 1965 provides for the 
enlargement and realignment of Bayous Nezpique and 
Des Cannes to obtain a 12- by 125-foot channel from 
Interstate Highway 10 to the Mermentau River; 
realignment of the Mermentau River upstream of the 
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway by the construction of 
several cutoffs, each 12 by 125 feet; enlargement of 
the channel through Lake Arthur to 12 by 200 feet; 
and the replacement of the highway bridge at the 
town of Lake Arthur with a new structure having 
a vertical clearance of 50 feet and a horizontal 
clearance of about 200 feet. 

The first contract was awarded in April 1974 
at a cost of $279,000, for the construction of four 
cutoffs. During construction, archeological sites were 
discovered at two of the four cutoffs locations. 
Because of the value of these archeological sites, the 
Corps of Engineers altered the sequence of 
construction of the cutoffs and established a salvage 
program for the two cutoffs. In addition, the Corps 
is intensively surveying the remainder of the 
project area for other sites. Work on the first 
contract was completed in August 1974. The over- 
all project is scheduled for completion in 1981. 
Estimated cost of the project modification as of 
30 June 1976 was $7,156,000 Federal, including 
$51,000 for navigation aids, and $1,125,000 
non-Federal. 

A reimbursable contract for replacement of the 
highway bridge at Lake Arthur was signed by the 
Louisiana Department of Highways and the Corps of 
Engineers in December 1971. Bids for construction 
of the bridge were received by the Highway 
Department in March 1972. The cost of the bridge 
was $4,719,000 of which $3,912,000 is Federal cost. 
Work has been completed and the bridge was opened 
to traffic in April 1975. 

WATERWAY FROM WHITE LAKE 
TO PECAN ISLAND 
(New Orleans District) 

Authorized in 1937 and partially completed in 
1939 at a cost of $10,900, this 1.8-mile project 
provides for a 5- by 40-foot channel from deep water 



128 



in White Lake to Pecan Island. The project was 
incorporated into the "Mermentau River" project by 
the River and Harbor Act of 1946. 



Average annual traffic, 1959-1963, was 28,600 
tons. Traffic is now included in the Mermentau River 
total shown on page 126. 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



CHURCH POINT 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Church 
Point area was completed and published in June 1972 
at a cost of $29,784. 

The study area is limited to Bayou Plaquemine 
Brule in the vicinity of Church Point from Mile 37 
to Mile 44.5. The report provides information on 
the nature of flood problems, the flooding in the 
Church Point area, and the location of areas 
subject to possible future floods. The report 
serves as a basis for the adoption of land-use 



controls to guide flood plain development. 

CROWLEY 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Crowley 
area was completed in October 1974 at a cost of 
$35,000. 

The study area comprises Bayou Plaquemine 
Brule and tributaries from Mile 11.2 along Bayou 
Plaquemine Brule upstream to Mile 20. The report 
indicates that the area is subject to headwater and 
backwater flooding. 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



MERMENTAU, VERMILION, AND 

CALCASIEU RIVERS, 

AND BAYOU TECHE 

(New Orleans District) 

This study is investigating the advisability of 
improvements or modifications to existing 
improvements in the interest of flood control, major 
drainage, navigation, water supply, water-quality 



control, saltwater intrusion, recreation, fish and 
wildlife, and other related water and land resources. 
An interim report recommending Federal assumption 
of the maintenance of the Mermentau River-Gulf of 
Mexico Navigation Channel was completed in June 
1975. This assumption of maintenance was 
authorized by the Water Resource Development Act 
of 1976. Completion of the overall study has not 
been scheduled. 



129 



CALCASIEU RIVER BASIN 





GULF OF MEXICO 



SCALE OF MILES 

10 10 20 30 



fc=l hH H-l 



± 



CALCASIEU RIVER BASIN 



CALCASIEU RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



This basin encompasses all the drainage area of 
Calcasieu River. The area is composed of hills and 
prairies in the upper portion of the basin, and coastal 
marshes along the lower extremity. The primary 



project feature is the Calcasieu saltwater barrier 
which was constructed to prevent saltwater intrusion 
in the Calcasieu River above Lake Charles. The 
various basin projects are described below. 



Projects 



BAYOU CHOUPIQUE 

(New Orleans District) 

Improvements consist of 2.7 miles of channel 
enlargement, 2.5 miles of diversion channel between 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and Mile 7.5, and the 
construction of an automatic drainage gate in the 
diversion channel near its mouth to prevent saltwater 
intrusion into the bayou through the diversion 
channel. 

This work was completed in May 1954 at a cost 
of $129,930. Cumulative benefits from flood damage 
prevented through June 1976 are estimated at 
$576,000. 

CALCASIEU RIVER AND PASS 
(New Orleans District) 

This improvement consists of enlargement of a 
previous 35-foot ship channel to provide an approach 
channel 42 feet deep and 800 feet wide in the Gulf 
of Mexico; a channel 40 feet deep and 400 feet wide 
extending from the jetties at the mouth of the river 
to Lake Charles (Mile 34.3); enlargement of the 



existing turning basin at Mile 29.6 to a depth of 
40 feet; construction of a mooring basin at Mile 3; 
extension of the existing ship channel (35 by 250 
feet) upstream to U. S. Highway 90 (Mile 36.0), with 
a turning basin at the upper end; and maintenance 
of the existing 12- by 200- foot channel in the old 
bends of Calcasieu River to Cameron. 

The 35-foot project was completed in 1953 at 
a total cost of about $7,800,000. The 40-foot 
modification was completed in 1968 at a cost of 
about $19,600,000, exclusive of $427,000 to the 
U. S. Coast Guard for navigation aids. 

Average annual traffic over the waterway from 
1971-1975 was 17,315,898 tons with crude 
petroleum, petroleum products, and chemicals 
accounting for the major portion of cargo. Below 
Lake Charles, the river serves primarily as access to 
fishing and hunting areas in adjacent lakes, bayous, 
marshes, and the Gulf of Mexico. 

Above Lake Charles, the Calcasieu River 
provides excellent fishing and hunting. Private 
camps, picnic areas, and commercial recreational 
facilities are available from Phillips Bluff to Lake 
Charles. 



133 




SALTWATER GUARD BARRIER, CALCASIEU RIVER 



CALCASIEU RIVER AND 
PASS SALTWATER BARRIER 
(New Orleans District) 

A modification of the Calcasieu River and Pass 
project, described above, was authorized by the River 
and Harbor Act of 1962 for construction of a barrier 
to prevent saltwater intrusion in the river above Lake 
Charles. 

The project consists of a tainter gate structure 
in a new channel excavated across the narrow neck 
of land between Miles 38.6 and 43.5, an earth dam 
in the old channel at Mile 43.2, and bank revetment 
along the left bank of the existing channel between 
Miles 43.6 and 44.2 and along the left bank opposite 
the downstream end of the structure. A navigation 
channel with a gated structure 56 feet wide and sills 
13 feet below mean low Gulf level is located north 
of the new barrier channel. 

Construction of the barrier was initiated in 1965 
and completed in January 1968 at a cost of 
$4,197,262. 



CALCASIEU RIVER 
AT DEVIL'S ELBOW 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized in 1970 under the provisions of 
Section 201 of the Flood Control Act of 1965, this 
project consists of enlargement and extension of the 
existing 12,000 feet of channel. The enlarged 
channel will match the current Calcasieu River ship 
channel dimensions of 40 by 400 feet and will 
extend into the industrial park to the vicinity of 
Louisiana State Highway 384. A 1,200- by 1,400-foot 
turning basin will be built at the landward end of 
the channel. 

As a major port, Lake Charles, which is served 
by the Calcasieu River and Pass project, handled 
17,462,574 tons of waterborne commerce in 1975. 
The Lake Charles Harbor and Terminal District is 
currently developing an industrial park at Devil's 
Elbow. Over $5 million has been spent for 
acquisition of 800 acres of land, a railroad spur 
track, and for construction of a 3 5-foot- deep ship 



134 



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LEGEND 

6.I.W.W. between Apalachee Bay, Fla. 
and the Mexican Border 

Calcasieu River and Pass 

G.I.W.W. - Morgan City to Port Allen Route 

Barataria Bay Waterway 

Atchafalayc 
Gulf of Me) 

Mississippi River - Gulf Outlet 



Atchafalaya River, Morgan City to 
"dexico 



20 



10 




1976 



TRAFFIC ON MAJOR WATERWAYS 



channel about 12,000 feet long. An aluminum plant 
has established in this area and efforts are being 
continued to attract other industries in locating 
within the park. 

Estimated Federal cost of the project (30 June 
1976) is $5,428,000 including $68,000 for the 
navigation aids. Non-Federal costs are estimated at 
$490,000. Detailed planning was initiated in fiscal 
year 1972 and construction was begun in 1976. The 
project is scheduled for completion in November 1 977. 

CALCASIEU RIVER AT 

COON ISLAND 

(New Orleans District) 

Authorized by Section 107 of the River and 
Harbor Act of 1960, as amended, the project provides 
for construction of a 40- by 200-foot ship channel 
and a 40- by 750- by 100- foot turning basin in Coon 
Island Channel. The Coon Island ship channel begins 
at its confluence with Calcasieu River and Pass ship 
channel and terminates opposite the northern end of 
Coon Island, a distance of 7,467 feet. Construction 



was initiated in July 1973 and completed in April 
1974 at a cost of $959,400. 

LAKE CHARLES DEEPWATER 

CHANNEL 

(New Orleans District) 

This project originally provided for Federal 
maintenance of the 30- by 125-foot channel 
constructed by local interests between the Calcasieu 
and Sabine Rivers, a distance of approximately 24.9 
miles. However, the project is now inactive, since 
direct access from Lake Charles to the Gulf was 
provided by the "Calcasieu River and Pass Project," 
described on page 133. 

This project coincides for its entire length with 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway under which 
maintenance to a 12- foot depth is accomplished as 
necessary. 

All traffic over this waterway is barge traffic 
associated with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. 
Average annual traffic for the 1971-1975 period was 
36,719,839 tons. 



Flood Plain Information Reports 



OAKDALE 
(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the Oakdale 
area was completed and published in August 1968 
at a cost of $25,803. 

The study area is limited to Calcasieu River in 
the vicinity of Oakdale, between approximately Mile 
127 above the mouth and Mile 135. The study 
indicates that Oakdale is subject to headwater 
flooding from Calcasieu River. At the time the study 
was completed, no flood damage prevention measures 
had been taken in the study area or upstream in the 



watershed, nor were any authorized or proposed. 

DEQUINCY 

(New Orleans District) 

A flood plain information report on the 
DeQuincy area was completed and published in 
September 1972 at a cost of $25,771. 

The study area comprises Buxton Creek and 
tributaries from Buxton Creek at Mile 12 upstream 
to Mile 12.5. The study area is subject to headwater 
flooding. 



136 



Flood Insurance Studies 



Under the National Flood Insurance Act of 
1968 (Public Law 90-448) and Hood Disaster 
Protection Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-234), which 
are discussed on page xx of the Introduction, the 
Corps of Engineers conducts flood insurance studies 
for HUD. Insurance studies that have been completed 
or are under way in the Calcasieu River Basin are 
listed to the right. 



Study Area 



Completed: Calcasieu Parish 

(Unincorporated Areas) 

Lake Charles 
Under Way: DeQuincy 



137 



SABINE RIVER BASIN 





\\ M^* 



SABINE RIVER BASIN 



Introduction 



This basin, located in the western part of the 
State, is bounded by the State of Texas on the west 
and Calcasieu River Basin on the east. The basin 
encompasses all the drainage area of the Sabine River 



in Louisiana. The three completed Corps of Engineers 
navigation projects in Sabine River are described 
below. 



Projects 



JOHNSON'S BAYOU 
(Galveston District) 

This 6-foot-deep, 0.5-mile-long channel 
improvement of unspecified width from Johnson's 
Bayou through the bar in Sabine Lake was completed 
in 1899 at a cost of $2,262. This project is presently 
inactive. Average annual traffic on the waterway, 
1971-1975, was 287,191 tons. 

SABINE-NECHES WATERWAY, 
LOUISIANA AND TEXAS 
(Galveston District) 

Authorized in 1921, this project consists of the 
construction and maintenance of 85.0 miles of deep 
water and 8.7 miles of shallow-draft channels from 
the Gulf of Mexico through a jettied entrance at the 
mouth of Sabine Pass to the cities of Port Arthur, 
Beaumont, and Orange, Texas, via the Port Arthur 
Canal, Sabine-Neches Canal, and the Neches and 
Sabine Rivers. 

Only that part of the improvement in Sabine 
River between Orange and Sabine Lake, and Sabine 



Lake and the Gulf is in Louisiana. The Sabine 
River portion of the Sabine-Neches deep draft 
waterway project extends from the mouth of the 
Sabine River at the north end of Sabine Lake 
through the Sabine River to Orange, a distance 
of 12 miles. 

The existing authorized project provides for a 
channel 30 feet deep and 200 feet wide from the 
mouth of the Sabine River to the foot of Green 
Avenue at Orange, a maneuvering area at the entrance 
to the Orange Municipal Slip, a channel 30 feet deep 
and 200 feet wide from the Sabine River to the 
Orange Municipal Wharf, and a shallow-draft channel 
12 feet deep and 125 feet wide from the foot of 
Green Avenue in Orange to Morgan Bluff, a channel 
length of 10.0 miles. Work to complete the Sabine 
River portion of the project consists of dredging the 
shallow-draft channel from Orange to Morgan Bluff 
at an estimated construction cost of $2,693,000. For 
additional information on the Orange to Morgan Bluff 
portion of the project, see similar pamphlet prepared 
for the State of Texas. Average traffic in the 
Sabine-Neches Waterway, 1971-1975, totaled 
83,031,799 tons. 



141 



VINTON WATERWAY 

(New Orleans District) 

A 9-foot-deep and 60-foot-wide waterway from 
the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway via the Vinton 
Drainage Canal to a turning basin at Vinton was 



authorized in 1937. The estimated cost of the 
improvement is $56,000. Local interests have been 
unwilling to provide the necessary rights-of-way and 
excavated material disposal areas. No work has been 
performed to date. Average annual traffic on the 
waterway, 1971-1975, was 9,572 tons. 



Surveys Authorized or Under Way 



LOWER SABINE RIVER AND 

TRIBUTARIES, TEXAS AND 

LOUISIANA 

(Fort Worth District) 

This study is a review of existing reports 
on the Sabine River and Tributaries below 
Toledo Bend Reservoir to determine whether 
any modifications to the recommendations in 
these previous reports are advisable at this 
time. 

Problems and needs of the lower basin 
such as flood control, hydropower, water supply, 
recreation, fish and wildlife, water quality, 
and navigation are to be addressed in this 
study. 

The study was initiated in February 1976 and 
is scheduled for completion in 1981. 



SABINE RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, 

COMPREHENSIVE BASIN STUDY, 

TEXAS AND LOUISIANA 

(Fort Worth District) 

The objective of this study is to survey the water 
resource needs of the Sabine River and Tributaries Ba- 
sin in Texas and Louisiana with particular reference to 
flood control, water supply, recreation, hydropower, 
fish and wildlife, water quality, and navigation. 

The survey report recommended the following 
projects: (a) three multiple-purpose lakes in the upper 
basin— Lake Fork, Carl L. Estes, and Big Sandy 
Lakes, Texas; (b) a local flood protection project at 
Greenville, Texas; and (c) a shallow draft navigation 
channel from Echo to Morgan Bluff, Texas. This 
channel would be a sea level extension of the present 
authorized channel from Orange to Echo, Texas. 

The study was completed in 1970. 



142 



COASTALWIDE PROJECTS 








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COASTALWIDE PROJECTS 



Introduction 



Corps of Engineers improvements that 
traverse several basins are included in this section. 
The primary feature is the Gulf Intracoastal 



Waterway which extends across the entire length of 
the lower portion of the State. Individual 
improvements are described below. 



Projects 



GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY 

BETWEEN APALACHEE BAY, 

FLORIDA, AND THE 

MEXICAN BORDER 

(New Orleans District) 

A series of Congressional Acts has authorized 
work which has progressively extended and enlarged 
the navigable channel to afford a practical coastal 
waterway route along the Gulf coast. Through the 
interconnection with the Mississippi River System 
and other important inland waterways, the 
Intracoastal Waterway enables small craft and 
commercial tows to reach many points throughout 
the eastern and southern seaboards, the Midwest, and 
the Great Lakes areas. 

The description herewith will be limited to that 
part of the project located in the State of Louisiana. 
(For description of the remainder of the project, see 
similar pamphlets prepared for the States of Florida, 
Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas.) 

The Intracoastal Waterway within the State 
limits extends along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico 
from Lake Borgne light No. 29, the eastern 
boundary, to the Sabine River, the western boundary, 



a distance of 302 miles; from Port Allen to Morgan 
City, a distance of 64 miles; from Plaquemine to 
Indian Village, a distance of 7.4 miles; and to the 
town of Franklin via the Franklin Canal, a distance 
of 5.15 miles. 

The project, as authorized by the River and 
Harbor Act of March 1925 and subsequent 
modifications through the River and Harbor Act of 
July 1946, provides for the following channel 
dimensions in the State of Louisiana: 

1. Main routes: 12 by 150 feet from Lake 
Borgne Light No. 29 to the Industrial Canal, and 12 
by 125 feet from the Mississippi River to the Sabine 
River, including the routes through both Algiers and 
Harvey Locks. 

2. Alternate routes: 12 by 125 feet from 
Morgan City to the Mississippi River at Port Allen, 
and 9 by 1 00 feet from Plaquemine to Indian Village 
on the Morgan City-Port Allen Route. 

3. Franklin Canal: 8 by 60 feet from its 
confluence with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to 
Franklin. 

At present there are nine locks in operation 
on the waterway routes. Dimensions of these locks 
are shown in the table on page 148. 



145 




INDUSTRIAL CANAL LOCK 




PORT ALLEN LOCK 











Elevation 








Size 




of Sill 
Mean Low 






Width 


Length 


Opened to 


Locks 


feet 
45 


feet 
300 


Cost 


Gulf Level 
-9.0 


Navigation 


Berwick* 


$ 2,100,000 


1951 


Inner Harbor Navigation 












Canal (leased) 


74 


626 


8,648,492 


-31.5 


1923 


Harvey 


75 


415 


1,775,132 


-12.0 


1934 


Vermilion 


56 


1,182 


330,765 


-11.3 


1933 


Calcasieu 


75 


1,194 


2,133,527 


-13.0 


1950 


Algiers 


75 


760 


5,215,700 


-13.0 


1956 


Bayou Sorrel** 


56 


790 


4,700,948 


-14.0 


1951 


Bayou Boeuf** 


75 


1,148 


2,754,000 


-13.0 


1954 


Port Allen 


84 


1,188 


13,902,222 


-13.75 


1961 



Tonnage is not available. 

Constructed and operated under the project, "Flood Control, Mississippi River and Tributaries." 



The Berwick Lock was constructed to provide 
a navigation passage up the Lower Atchafalaya River 
to Patterson, Louisiana, and to Bayou Teche. The 
lock is a feature of the Atchafalaya River Basin 
and is described on page 36. 

The Calcasieu and Vermilion Locks were 
constructed and are operated to prevent saltwater 
intrusion into the Mermentau River Basin. These 
locks are an essential part of the plan of improvement 
for "Mermentau River" described on page 126. 

The Algiers Lock and Canal route begins 6 miles 
west of Harvey Lock on the existing waterway and 
extends to the Mississippi River below Algiers. The 
9-mile channel and lock were completed in 1962, 
although they were actually opened to navigation in 
April 1956. Average annual traffic through Algiers 
Lock, 1971-1975, was 22,892,137 tons. Federal cost 
of the project route was $15,896,000 and 
non-Federal was $2,185,000. 

The 64.1 -mile-long alternate route from Morgan 
City to the Mississippi River, a new lock at Port 
Allen, and the channel in Bayou Plaquemine from 
Indian Village to the inoperative lock at Plaquemine 
were begun in February 1955 and completed in 
December 1962. The Port Allen Lock was opened 
to navigation in July 1961. In September 1961, the 
Plaquemine Lock on the channel from Indian Village 
to the Mississippi River was permanently closed. New 
bridges were constructed for the Texas and Pacific 



Railway crossing at Morley and Port Allen and for 
the Louisiana State Highway 1 crossing at Port Allen. 
Local interests constructed a highway bridge at 
Indian Village. Average annual traffic on the Morgan 
City-Port Allen Route, 1971-1975, was 16,158,395 
tons. This modification was completed in October 
1963 at a Federal cost of $26,869,000 and 
non-Federal cost of $2,250,000. 

The bridge over the waterway, authorized at 
Paris Road at New Orleans, has been superseded by 
the larger bridge required at the same location for 
the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet now completed 
(page 105). 

An interim section of 8 by 50 feet was 
completed for the Franklin Canal in 1950 by the 
Federal Government. The canal was enlarged to 
project dimensions (8 by 60 feet) by local interests 
in 1953-1954. 

All other work authorized through 1946 for this 
project except bulkheads and jetties at Lake Borgne 
and Chef Menteur has been completed. The 
bulkheads and jetties are not considered necessary at 
this time. Total cost of the new work in Louisiana 
under the existing project is $62,402,000 including 
$72,000 for navigation aids, and $14,830,000 
non- Federal. 

The average annual traffic, 1971-1975, on the 
waterway between Apalachee Bay and the Mexican 
Border was 103,153,741 tons. 



148 



The enlargement of the main channel west of 
the Mississippi River with a bypass south of Houma 
was authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 
October 1962. 

Modification of the "Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 
Between Apalachee Bay, Florida, and the Mexican 
Border," authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 
1962, consists of enlargement and realignment of the 
existing 12- by 125-foot channel between the 
Mississippi River at New Orleans and the Houston 
Ship Channel. The modification includes the 
following new channels in Louisiana: 

1. A channel 16 feet deep and 150 feet wide 
between Mile 5 of the Harvey Canal west of Harvey 
Lock and the Atchafalaya River. 

2. A channel 16 feet deep and 150 feet wide 
in the Algiers alternate canal. 

3. A bypass channel 16 feet deep and 1 50 feet 
wide south of Houma with 58 percent of the cost 
of four bridges to be borne by the Federal 
Government. 

4. A channel 16 feet deep and 200 feet wide 
between the Atchafalaya and Sabine Rivers. 

No funds have been allotted to date for planning 
or construction of the modification. Acts of 
assurances of local cooperation from the 1 1 parishes 
through which the improvements traverse have not 
been furnished. 

REMOVING WATER HYACINTH 
(New Orleans District) 

The water hyacinth which was introduced into 
the United States from Central or South America and 
exhibited at the 1884 Cotton Exposition in New 
Orleans, spread throughout southern Louisiana and 
Florida to such an extent that by 1898 the Congress 
was requested to intercede. The U. S. Army 
Engineers made a report in that year, and operations 
to control growth of this plant began in 1900. 

From 1902 to 1937, the hyacinth was 
controlled entirely by treating with sodium arsenite. 
During the 35 years of control by sodium arsenite, 
operations were confined to about 300 miles of 
navigable waterways per year. Because of the hazards 
connected with handling and use, destruction by this 



chemical was abandoned in 1937 in favor of 
destruction by mechanical means. Since the late 
1940's, use of the plant hormone 2,4-D gradually 
replaced mechanical destruction except in unusual 
cases. Efforts are constantly being made to improve 
the methods of plant control by testing new 
herbicides, equipment, and application techniques. 
Research is also being conducted to locate and 
develop biological control agents. 

Removal of the hyacinth is a continuing project 
for which funds are appropriated annually. 
Authorized under the project is extermination or 
removal of plants which are or may become 
obstructions to navigation within the navigable waters 
of the States of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Texas. The estimated annual cost for 
maintenance in Louisiana is $700,000. 

There are presently 6,200,000 acres of water in 
Louisiana, of which it is estimated that 500,000 acres 
are infested by hyacinth, or are subject to infestation. 
With the completion of the Intracoastal Waterway, 
which connects many streams, the problem has been 
accentuated, and today operations are conducted 
in about 3,000 miles of waterway annually, as 
required. 

Frequent checks are made on all of the 
waterways in the State to determine the existing 
conditions and to plan future operations. The control 
of aquatic vegetation has been achieved through: (a) 
control structures to prevent the drifting from 
infested areas into main waterway; (b) drifting the 
vegetation to salt water and self-destruction; (c) 
mechanical destruction by means of destroyers 
utilizing multiple semisubmerged saws to shred 
vegetation in place; and (d) chemical destruction of 
vegetation. 

The work has been extended into many streams 
hitherto blocked to navigation, and the number of 
pleasure craft entering the newly opened areas has 
increased greatly. 

Research to develop new methods of control or 
improve existing techniques has been carried on by 
the Corps continuously since 1934. The sum of 
$11,092,825 has been spent on this project in 
Louisiana by the U. S. Army Engineers since its 
inception. 



149 




AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL 



AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL 
(New Orleans District) 

A review of the project, "Removing trie Water 
Hyacinth," was authorized in 1945. The review 
report prepared by the U. S. Army Engineers in 
cooperation with the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the 
U. S. Public Health Service has been published as 
House Document No. 37, 85th Congress, 1st Session. 
As a result of this study, Congress, on July 3, 1958, 
authorized a separate comprehensive project to 
control and progressively eradicate the water- 
hyacinth, alligator weed, and other obnoxious aquatic 
plant growths from the navigable waters, tributary 
streams, connecting channels, and other allied waters 
in the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and 
Texas. 

Amended by Public Law 89-298 in 1965 the 
project now includes the control and eradication of 
Eurasian water milfoil. All states are now included 
in the program. 

Benefits from the project accrue to navigation, 
flood control, drainage, agriculture, fish and wildlife 
conservation, public health, and related water 
resources development purposes. Research for 
development of the most effective and economic 
control measures is an integral part of the project. 
The Corps is presently working with the 
Northwestern State University of Louisiana, the 



University of Southwest Louisiana, and the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture in addition to conducting 
its own research programs to effectively control 
aquatic vegetation. 

The project is administered by the Chief of 
Engineers under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Army and in cooperation with other Federal and 
State agencies. Local interests are required to hold 
and save the United States free from claims that may 
occur from operations under the project and to 
participate to the extent of 30 percent of the cost 
of the program. 

Total cost of the project under Public Law 
89-298 is limited to $5,000,000 annually, allocated 
on a priority basis, depending upon the urgency 
and need of each area and the availability of local 
funds. 

Planning work in Louisiana was initiated in May 
1959. Corps of Engineers crews work in the larger 
streams and the Louisiana Wild Life and Fisheries 
Commission crews carry operations beyond this point 
into the feeder areas and lakes in north Louisiana. 

Work in Pearl River Basin (Mobile District) is 
carried out under the expanded program by the Wild 
Life and Fisheries Commission which is under 
contract with New Orleans District. Additional work 
which can be done effectively by the State crews is 
assigned on a cost reimbursable basis, depending on 
the availability of funds. 

As a result of this work, recreation activities 
along the many waterways in Louisiana have 



150 



increased greatly. New channels to pleasure spots 
have been made available for general public use. The 



sum of $6,555,352 has been spent on this project 
in Louisiana by the U. S. Army Engineers. 



Emergency Projects 



FLOOD FIGHT, 1975 
(New Orleans District) 

In the first few weeks of January 1975 and for 
the third consecutive year, the possibility of serious 
high-water conditions occurring along the Lower 
Mississippi River later in the spring became evident 
once again by the all too familiar behavior of the 
river and its rising stages. The New Orleans District 
therefore began preparations in anticipation of the 
high-water threat. 

Thus, because of the extended period of 
intermediate to high river stages on the Mississippi 
River, wave-wash damage to levees under 
construction below New Orleans in Plaquemines 
Parish, and forecasts for continuation of rising river 
stages, partial mobilization was ordered on 14 March 
1975 in the MR&T project area in the New Orleans 
District. 

To protect levees under construction (some 



67 miles), immediate installation of wave-wash 
protection was begun by construction of vertical 
board revetments and placement of shell-filled bags 
and riprap. 

The District went into full mobilization on 
28 March 1975. 

Approximately 14.3 miles of Mississippi River 
levees were raised 0.5 to 3.5 feet by placement of 
sandbags. A total of 7,500 feet of emergency 
mudboxes were constructed for additional freeboard 
at the Louisiana Street Wharf in New Orleans and 
St. Francisville Casting Yard. Vertical board 
revetments were completed at Gravolet, Carlisle, and 
Phoenix, Louisiana, along 12,500 feet of levee to 
prevent wave-wash erosion. About 175,000 tons of 
riprap were placed along 28 miles of levee for 
foreshore protection and slope protection restoration. 

Approximately 70 miles of the Atchafalaya 
Basin protection levee were scheduled to be raised 
0.5 to 2.0 feet by the construction of a "potato 




FLOOD PROTECTION PROVIDED BY MUDBOXES AS AN EMERGENCY MEASURE 



151 




EROSION PREVENTED BY USE OF BOARD REVETMENT 



ridge" to allow for additional freeboard. Much of this 
work was started but was not carried to completion. 
A vertical board revetment 1,400 feet in length was 
constructed in the vicinity of Berwick to prevent 
wave-wash erosion. At Morgan City, Berwick, and 
Tiger Island, the old existing mudboxes were removed 
and new ones constructed. Emergency gate raising at 
several structures was also accomplished. 

In addition to the work completed by contract, 
approximately 25,000 tons of riprap were placed 
along the Mississippi River levees including 135,000 
cubic yards of shell and gravel requisitioned for 
spreading on levee crowns and/or stockpiling in both 
the Mississippi River levee and Atchafalaya River 
Basin levee areas. 

On 14 April 1975, based on a gage reading of 
17.8 feet mean sea level (msl) and a predicted crest 
by National Weather Service of 19.5 feet msl at 
Carrollton gage, Bonnet Carre Spillway was opened 
for the fifth time in its history. A total of 225 bays 
were opened by 16 April 1975, then further 
openings were discontinued due to falling river stages. 

On 17 April 1975, gradual closure of Bonnet 
Carre Spillway began and was completed by 26 April 
1975. The structure was operated for 13 days and 
maximum recorded flow was 134,000 cubic feet per 
second on 16 April 1975 with 225 bays opened. 

Due to improved conditions and predicted river 
stages all levee raising contracts in the Atchafalaya 



Basin were terminated by 23 April 1975 with all 
work approximately 47 percent complete. 

A total of $17.5 million was expended under 
authority of Public Law 84-99 during fiscal year 1975. 




BONNET CARRE BEING OPENED 



152 



INDEX 



Page 



Page 



Algiers Lock 148 

Alluvial Valley Mapping 22 

Aloha-Rigolette Area, Grant and 

Rapides Parishes 66 

Aloha-Rigolette (Red River) Area, 

Louisiana 82 

Amite River and Bayou Manchac . . 89 

Amite River and Tributaries .... 89 

Aquatic Plant Control 150 

Armistead Bank Protection 63 

Atchafalaya Basin Bank Stabilization . 29 

Atchafalaya Basin Floodway .... 14, 29 

Atchafalaya Basin Levees 30 

Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel 

Improvement Dredging 34 

Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land 

Resources) 46 

Atchafalaya River 39 

Atchafalaya River and Bayous Chene, 

Boeuf, and Black 44 

Atchafalaya River Improvement 

Dredging 34 

Atchafalaya River, Morgan City to 

Gulf of Mexico 45 

Bank Stabilization 18 

Barataria Bay Waterway 101 

Barataria Bay Waterway, Dupre Cut . Ill 

Barataria Bay Waterway, Entrance 

Channel Ill 

Baton Rouge Harbor— Devil's Swamp . 18 

Baton Rouge No. 1 95 

Baton Rouge No. 2 96 

Baton Rouge No. 3 96 

Baton Rouge No. 4 96 

Baton Rouge No. 5 96 

Bawcomville Loop Levee 50 

Bayou Barataria, Bayou Perot .... Ill 

Bayou Bartholomew and Tributaries, 

Arkansas and Louisiana .... 51 

Bayou Berard Drainage Canal .... 33 

Bayou Bodcau and Tributaries ... 68 

Bayou Bodcau, Red Chute, and Loggy 

Bayou 68 



Bayou Boeuf-Bayou Long Drainage 
Canal and Enlargement to 

Bayou Chene 34 

Bayou Boeuf Lock 37, 148 

Bayou Bonfouca 90,98 

Bayou Chevreuil Ill 

Bayou Choupique 133 

Bayou Cocodrie and Tributaries ... 41 

Bayou Courtableau Diversion Channels 

and Control Structure 32 

Bayou Darbonne Drainage Structure . 32 

Bayou des Cyprairres 120 

Bayou des Glaises Culvert 32 

Bayou des Glaises Diversion Channel, 

State Canal, and Bayou Roseau . 32 

Bayou des Glaises Fuseplug Levee . . 31 

Bayou Dupre 101 

Bayou Francois 95 

Bayou Grand Caillou Ill 

Bayou Grosse Tete 103 

Bayou Lacombe 90 

Bayou Lafourche and Lafourche-Jump 

Waterway 103,111 

Bayou L'Eau Bleu 110 

Bayou Manchac and Amite River . . 98 

Bayou Nicholas and Coushatta ... 63 

Bayou Pierre 68 

Bayou Pierre, Vicinity of Shreveport . 69 

Bayou Plaquemine Brule 125 

Bayou Queue de Tortue 125 

Bayou Rapides 63 

Bayou Sale Ridge 121 

Bayou Segnette 104 

Bayou Segnette Waterway 104 

Bayou Sorrel Lock 37, 148 

Bayou Teche 115 

Bayou Teche and Vermilion River . . 115 

Bayou Terre Aux Boeufs 104 

Bayou Terrebonne .104 

Bayou Vermilion 116 

Bayou Vincent 95 



153 



INDEX (Continued) 



_Page_ 



Page 



Bayous LaLoutre, St. Malo, and 

Yscloskey 103 

Bayous Rapides, Boeuf, and Cocodrie 

and Outlets 121 

Benoit Bayou 79 

Berwick Lock 36, 148 

Berwick Lock, Atchafalaya River 

Basin 46 

Bickham Bayou 79 

Big Choctaw Bayou 56 

Black Bayou 52,79 

Black Bayou-Pine Island Area .... 64 

Bodcau Lake, Arkansas- Louisiana ... 69 
Boeuf and Tensas Rivers and 

Tributaries— Headwater Area ... 55 

Bogalusa 86 

Bonnet Carre Spillway and Floodway . 9 

Borrow Pit Enlargement Between 

Hamburg and Courtableau ... 32 

Brush Bayou 64,78,80 

Bushley Bayou Area 58 

Caddo Lake, Replacement of Dam . . 65 

Calcasieu Lock 148 

Calcasieu River and Pass 133 

Calcasieu River and Pass Saltwater 

Barrier 134 

Calcasieu River at Coon Island ... 136 

Calcasieu River at Devil's Elbow ... 134 

Campti-Clarence Levee 69 

Cane River 78 

Catahoula -Charenton Area 46 

Channel Improvement (Mississippi 

River) 7 

Charenton Drainage Canal 33 

Charenton Floodgate 35 

Chefuncte River and Bogue Falia . . 90 

Choctaw Bayou 105 

Church Point 129 

Colfax, Grant Parish 64 

Columbia Lock and Dam 49 

Columbia Loop Levee 50 



Concordia Parish 


59 


Courtableau Drainage Structure and 

Channels 


33 


Coushatta Bank Protection 


64 


Covington 


96 


Crowley 


129 


Cypremort to Dauterive 


33 


Cypress Bayou and Waterway Between 
Jefferson, Texas, and Shreveport, 
Louisiana 


64 


DeQuincy 


136 


Dikes and Dredging 


8 


East and West Access Channels . . . 


38 


East and West Calumet Floodgates . . 


35 


East and West Freshwater Distribution 
Channels 


38 


East and West Freshwater Diversion 

Structures 


39 


East Atchafalaya Basin Protection 

Levee 


30 


East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee, 
Landside Drainage Improvements . 


33 


East Atchafalaya River Levee .... 


31 


East Point Levee 


72 


Eastern Rapides and South-Central 

Avoyelles Parishes 


41 


Emergency Bank Protection— Red River. 


78 


Emergency Repairs— Public Law 99-84 . 


78 


Fire Point Cutoff and Revetment . . 


65 


Hood Fight, 1975 


151 


Floodways and Outlets (Mississippi 

River) 


9 


Franklin 


120 




148 




116 


Gages and Observations 


22 


Gahagan Bend 


65 


Gonzales 


97 


Grand Isle Beach Erosion 


102 


Grant Parish Below Colfax 


72 


Grant's Canal (Filling) 


57 


Gulf Coast Deepwater Facilities . . . 


111 



154 



INDEX (Continued) 



Page 



_Page_ 



Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Between 
Apalachee Bay, Florida, and the 

Mexican Border 145 

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Louisiana 

and Texas Ill 

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Louisiana 
Section, High-Level Highway 

Crossings 112 

Harrisonburg to Little River Area . . 57 

Harvey Canal-Barataria Levee .... 105 

Harvey Lock 148 

High-Level Crossings 13 

Houma Navigation Canal 105 

Improvements for Access, Fish and 

Wildlife, and Recreation .... 38 

Inland Waterway from Franklin to 

the Mermentau River 125 

Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock . 148 

Johnson's Bayou 141 

Jonesville 59 

Jonesville Lock and Dam 49 

Keystone Lock and Dam 115 

Lafayette 120 

Lake Charles Deep water Channel ... 136 

Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity 

Hurricane Protection 90 

Lake Pontchartrain, Jefferson Parish . . 98 

Lake Pontchartrain Levees 94 

Lake Pontchartrain, North Shore ... 98 

Lake Pontchartrain, West Shore ... 98 

Lake Providence Harbor 22,24 

Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane 

Protection 105 

Larto Lake-Saline Lake 59 

Larto Lake to Jonesville Area .... 58 

Levee from Black Hawk to Torras . . 18 

Levees— Main Line (Mississippi River) . 4 

Levees West of Berwick 31 

Little Caillou Bayou 105 

Lottie to Bayou Maringouin Borrow 

Pit Enlargement 34 

Louisiana Coastal Area 112 



Louisiana State Penitentiary 

Levee, Mississippi River .... 24 

Lower Atchafalaya River Basin 

Projects 44 

Lower Mississippi Region Comprehensive 

Study 25 

Lower Red River 39 

Lower Sabine River and Tributaries, 

Texas and Louisiana 142 

Low-Sill Control Structure 15 

Lucas Bend 65 

Mansura Hills to Hamburg Levee ... 31 

Mermentau River 126 

Mermentau River, and Bayous 

Nezpique and Des Cannes ... 128 

Mermentau, Vermilion, and Calcasieu 

Rivers, and Bayou Teche .... 129 

Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine 

Areas 98 

Mississippi Delta Region 22 

Mississippi River 22 

Mississippi River and Tributaries, 

Alluvial Valley 3 

Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to 

Gulf of Mexico 23 

Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to 

Natchez, Mississippi 25 

Mississippi River, Cairo, Illinois, 

to Baton Rouge, Louisiana . . . 18,25 

Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet . . . . 25, 105 

Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, 

Michoud Canal 107 

Mississippi River Outlets, Venice ... 24 

Moncla Bridge 65 

Moncla to Lake Long 39 

Monroe 52 

Monroe Floodwall Extension .... 50 

Morgan City and Vicinity Hurricane 

Protection 45 

Morganza Combined Control Structure . 13 

Morganza Floodway 12 

Morganza Floodway Levees 13 

MR&T Projects 29 



155 



INDEX (Continued) 



Page 



Page 



Natalbany River 95 

Natchitoches Parish 72 

New Orleans-Baton Rouge 

Metropolitan Area 98 

New Orleans, Texas, and Mexico 

Railway 14 

New Orleans to Venice Hurricane 

Protection 109 

New River 95 

Oakdale 136 

Off-Main-Stem Hood Control .... 8 

Old River 14 

Old River Navigation Lock 17 

Opelousas-Ville Platte-Bunkie Railway 

Connection 14 

Ouachita and Black Rivers (9-Foot 
Navigation Project), Arkansas 

and Louisiana 49 

Ouachita River and Tributaries, 

Arkansas and Louisiana .... 50 

Ouachita River Basin 52 

Overbank Control Structure .... 17 

Overton-Red River Waterway .... 66 

Pass Manchac 94 

Pearl River 85 

Pearl River Basin, Mississippi 

and Louisiana 86 

Pearl River Waterway, Mississippi 

and Louisiana 85 

Petit Anse, Tigre, and Carlin Bayous . 116 

Pine Brush Bayou 79 

Pineville 72 

Pinhook Bridge 117 

Pointe Coupee Drainage Structure and 

Bayou Latenache 13 

Ponchatoula Creek 95 

Port Allen Lock 148 

Port of Lake Providence 24 

Posten Bayou 78 

Posten Bayou, Arkansas and Louisiana . 73 

Railroad Bridge at Berwick 35 

Rayville 57 

Red River 79 



Red River Backwater Area 58 

Red River Below Denison Dam, Com- 
prehensive Basin Study— Authorizing 

Report 81 

Red River Below Denison Dam, Com- 
prehensive Basin Study, Louisiana, 

Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas . 81 

Red River Below Denison Dam— New and 

Incorporated Projects 67 

Red River Below Denison Dam, Texas, 

Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana . 66 

Red River Below Fulton, Arkansas . . 75 

Red River in Vicinity of Shreveport . 73 

Red River Levees and Bank Stabilization 
Below Denison Dam, Texas, 

Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana . 73 

Red River Parish 74 

Red River Waterway, Louisiana, 

Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas . 75 

Removing Water Hyacinth 149 

Retention Dikes 39 

Revetment and Foreshore Protection . 7 

Sabine-Neches Waterway, Louisiana 

and Texas 141 

Sabine River and Tributaries, 
Comprehensive Basin Study, 

Texas and Louisiana 142 

Saline Point 74 

Sand Beach Bayou 80 

Schooner Bayou Control Structure . . 126 

Schooner Bayou Lock 126 

Scott and Lafayette Parish 120 

Selsers Creek 95 

Shreveport No. 1 80 

Shreveport No. 2 80 

Shreveport No. 3 80 

Shreves Island Cutoff 77 

Sicily Island Area 58 

Slidell 97 

Tangipahoa River 94 

Tangipahoa River— Navigation Project . 94 

Teche- Vermilion Basins 118 



156 



INDEX (Continued) 



Page 



Page 



Tensas Basin, Boeuf and Tensas Rivers 
and Tributaries, Arkansas and 

Louisiana 55 

Tensas Basin, Red River Backwater 

Area 58 

Tensas-Cocodrie Area 58 

Tickfaw, Natalbany, Ponchatoula, 

and Blood Rivers 95 

Tickfaw River 95 

Twelvemile Bayou 77, 79 

U. S. Highway 190 14 

Vermilion Lock 118,148 

Vinton Waterway 142 

Wallace Bayou 78 

Wallace Lake 74,82 

Walnut-Roundaway Bayou 57 

Waterway from Empire to the Gulf 

of Mexico 109 

Waterway from the Intracoastal Water- 
way to Bayou Dulac— Bayous Grand 

Caillou and LeCarpe 109 



Waterway from White Lake to Pecan 
Island 

Wax Lake Outlet 

West Agurs Levee 

West Atchafalaya Basin Protection 
Levee 

West Atchafalaya Basin Protection 
Levee, Landside Drainage 
Improvements 

West Atchafalaya Floodway . . . 

West Atchafalaya River Levee . . . 

West Bank of Mississippi River, Vicinity 
of New Orleans 

West Monroe 

West Monroe Loop Levee .... 

Winnsboro 

Yellow Water River 



128 
35 

75 

30 



32 
13 
31 

112 
52 
50 
57 
95 



157 



>■ 




SCALE OF MILES 



10 o 



20 
=3= 



30 JUNE 1976 



30 

d 



B 




NAVIGATION PROJECTS 



D4 
C5 

E5 
E4 
E4 
C3 
E4 
E4 



Ami te 


River & Bayou Manchac (1) D5 


At cha 


:alaya River, Morgan 


B4 


Cit 


f to Gulf of Mexico (2) 




Barataria Bay Waterway (3) 


A4 


Bavou 


Bonfouca (4) 


A4 


Bavou 


Dupre (5) 




Bayou 


Grosse Tete (36) 


CI 


Bavou 


Lacombe (6) 


D5 


Bayou 


La Lout re, St. Malo, 


B4 


and 


Yscloskev (7) 


B4 


Bavou 


Plaquemine Brule (8) 




Bavou 


Queue de Tortue (9) 




Bayou 


Segnette (109) 


C4 


Bavou 


Teche (39) 




Bayou 


Teche & Vermilion 


E4 


River (10) 


E4 


Bayou 


Terre Aux Boeufs (108) 




Bavou 


Terrebonne (11) 


C2 


Bayou 


Vermilion (12) 




Calcasieu River and Pass (13) 


D4 


a 


40-Foot Project 


E3 


b 


Saltwater Barrier 


E3 


Calcasieu River at Coon 




Island, La. Ship Channel (119) 


Chefuncte River & Bogue 




Fal 


La (14) 


A2 


Cypress Bayou and W W between 


D3 


Jefferson, Tex. and 


D3 


Shreveport, La. (15) 




Freshwater Bayou (40) 


E5 


Gulf Intracoastal Waterway 




Between Apalachee Bay, Fla. 


B4 


& the Mexican Border (16) 


D5 



Houraa Navigation Canal (17) 
Inland Waterway from Franklin 

to Mermentau River (22) 
Johnsons Bayou (18) 
Lake Charles Deep Water 

Channel (19) 
Lake Providence Harbor (20) 
Little Calllou Bayou (21) 
Mermentau River (22) 
Mermentau River, Bayou Nezpique 

& Bayou des Cannes (9-foot 

project) (23) 
Mississippi River, Baton Rouge 

to Gulf of Mexico (41) 
Mississippi River - Gulf Outlet (42) 
Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet 

Michoud Canal (103) 
Ouachita & Black Rivers, 

Ark. & La. (24) 
Pass Manchac (25) 
Pearl River (112) 
Pear River Waterway, Miss. 

and La. (26) 
Petit Anse, Tigre & Carlin 

Bayous (27) 
Red River below Fulton, Ark. 
Tangipahoa River (29) (110) 
Tickfaw, Natalbany, Ponchatoula, 

& Blood Rivers (30) 
Waterway from Empire, La. 

to the Gulf of Mexico (31) 
Vermilion Lock (106) 
Waterway from Intracoastal 

Waterway to Bayou Dulac (32) 
Waterway from White Lake 

to Pecan Island (22) 



PROJECTS COMPLETED 



FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS 



Aloha-Rigolette Area, Grant 

and Rapides Parishes (46) 
Amite River and Tributaries (47) 
Bayou Bodcau, Red Chute, and 

Loggy Bayou (49) 
Bodcau Lake (48) 
Bayou Choupique (50) 
Bayou Nicholas and Coushatta (51) 
Bayou Pierre (53) 
Bayou Pierre in Vicinity of 

Shreveport (52) 
Bayou Rapides (54) 
Big Choctaw Bayou (55) 
Black Bayou - Pine Island Area (56) 
Caddo Dam Replacement (67) 
Campt i-Clarence Area (68) 
East Point (69) 

Grant Parish below Colfax (57) 
Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity 

(Hurricane Protection) (77) 
Natchitoches Parish (58) 
Ouachita River & Tributaries, 

Ark. & La. (59) 

a. Columbia 

b. Monroe Floodwall Extension 
Pineville (60) 

Red River Parish (61) 
Red River, Vicinity of 

Shreveport (62) 
Saline Point (63) 
Twelvemile Bayou (64) 
Wallace Lake (65) 



C4 
C4 
C3 

C4 
C4 



Atchafalaya Basin Floodway (81) 
a. Atchafalaya Basin Levees 
Atchafalaya River 

Impr . Dredging 
Atchafalaya River (Nav.) 
Bayou Boeuf Lock 
Bayou Sorrel Lock 
Berwick Lock 
Charenton Floodgate 
East Access Channel 
East Freshwater 

Distribution Channel 
East & West Calumet 

Floodgates 
Raising T. & N.O. Ry. 
Bridge at Berwick 
m. Wax Lake Outlet 
n. West Access Channel 
o. West Freshwater 

Distribution Channel 
Baton Rouge Harbor 
(Navigation) (92) 
Bawcomville (111) 
Bonnet Carre Floodway (82) 
East Atchafalaya Basin 

Protection Levee Landside 
Drainage Improvement (83) 

a. Bayou Boeuf-Bayou Long 
Drainage Channel & 
Enlgt. of Bayou Chene 

b. Lottie to Bayou 
Maringouin 

Filling Grant's Canal (84) 
Harrisonburg to Little River Levees (£ 
Jonesville (86) 
Lake Pontchartrain (87) 



PROJECTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 



FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS 



Bayou Bodcau and Tributaries (73) 

Brush Bayou (120) 

Choctaw Bayou (107) 

Harvey Canal-Barataria Levee (76) 

Lake Pontchartrain & Vicinity 

(Hurricane Protection) (77) 
Larose to Golden Meadow 

(Hurricane Protection) 
Morgan City and Vicinity 

(Hurricane Protection) 
New Orleans to Venice 

(Hurricane Protection) 
Ouachita River & Tributaries, 

Ark. & La. (59) 

c . Ouachita River Levee 
Red River Below Den i son Dam, La., 

Ark. , Okla. , 6. Tex. (71) 
Red River Levee & Bank Stabilization 

below Denison Dam, Tex., Ark., 

and La. (72) 
Teche-Vermilion Basins (124) 



C4 

C4 
C4 



Atchafalaya Rasin Floodway (81) B3 

a. Atchafalaya Basin Levees C3 
p. Main Channel Impr. 

Dredging C2 

Atchafalaya Basin Bank CI 

Stabilization (116) c2 

Baton Rouge Harbor D4 

(Navigation) (92) C2 

Bayou Cocodrie and Trib. (93) C2 

Tensas Basin, Boeuf and Tensas C2 

Rivers, etc., Ark. and La. (94) C3 

C3 



Atchafalaya Basin Floodway (81) 
r. Bayou Courtableau 

Freshwater Diversion 
Structure and Channel 
s. Sherburne Freshwater 
Diversion Structure 
and Channel 
Eastern Rapides, South Central 

Avoyelles Parishes (115) 
Mississippi Delta Region (114) 




FLOOD CONTROL, MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES 
FEATURES OF PROJECT 



Morganza Floodway (88) 

a. Control Structure 

b. N.O.T. & M.R.R. High 

Level Crossing 

c. Pointe Coupee Drainage 

Structure & Enlgt. Bayou 
Latenache Drainage Canal 

d. T. & P. Ry. High Level Crossing 

e. U.S. Hwy. No. 190 High Level 

Crossing 
Old River (99) 

a . Low-Sill Control Structure 

b. Overbank Control Structure 

c. Old River Navigation Lock 

d. Levee from Black Hawk to Torras 
West Atchafalaya Basin Protection 

Levee, Landside Drainage (89) 

a. Bayou Berard Drainage Canal 

b. Bayou Courtableau Diversion 

Channels & Control Structure 

c. Bayou Courtableau Drainage 

Structure & Channel 

d. Bayou Darbonne Drainage Structure 

e. Bayou des Glaises Culvert 
Bayou des Glaises Diversion Channel 
Channel Impr. Cypremort to 

Dauterive 
Borrow Pit Enlgt., Hamburg to 
Courtableau 
i. Charenton Drainage Cnaal 
West Atchafalaya Floodway (90) 

a. N.O.T. & M.R.R. High Level Crossing 

b. Opelousas-Ville Platte-Bunkie 

R. R. Crossing 

c. U.S. Hwy. No. 190, High Level 

Crossing 



f . 



h. 



FLOOD CONTROL, MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES 
FEATURES OF PROJECT 



Surveys Authorized or Underway 



B2 Aloha-Rigolette (Red River) Area, Louisiana 

C4 Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources) 

D4 Barataria Bay Waterway - Dupre Cut 

C4 Barataria Bay Waterway - Entrance Channel 

D4 Bayou Barataria - Bayou Perot 

E4 Bayou Bonfouca 

D4 Bayou Chevreuil 

D5 Bayou Grand Caillou 

D5 Bayou Lafourche and Lafourche Jump Waterway 

D4 Bayou Manchac and Amite River 

B3 Bayou Rapides, Boeuf, and Cocodrie and Outlets 

C4 Bayou Sale Ridge 

C4 Berwick Lock, Atchafalaya River Basin, Walnut Roundaway Bayou 

C3 Catahoula - Charenton Area 

E5 Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities, Tex., La., Miss., Ala., and F 

A4 Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Louisiana and Texas 

D4 Gulf Intracoastal Waterway - Louisiana Section - High Level Highway 

Crossing 

D4 Lake Pontchartrain, Jefferson Parish 

E4 Lake Pontchartrain, North Shore 

D4 Lake Pontchartrain, West Shore 

Cl Lake Providence Harbor 

C2 Larto Lake - Saline Lake 

D5 Louisiana Coastal Area 

C3 Louisiana State Penitentiary Levee, Mississippi River 

D5 Lower Mississippi Region Comprehensive Study 

A3 Lower Sabine River and Tributaries, Texas and Louisiana 

B4 Mermentau Vermilion, and Calcasieu Rivers and Bayou Teche 

D4 Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine Areas 

C3 Mississippi River, Baton Rouge to Natchez, Miss. 

C2 Mississippi River, Cairo, Illinois, to Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

E4 Mississippi River - Gulf Outlet 

D4 New Orleans-Baton Rouge Metropolitan Area, Louisiana 

Bl Ouachita River Basin 

E3 Pearl River Basin, Mississippi and Louisiana 

Al Red River Below Denison Dam - Authorizing Reports 

Al Red River Below Denison Dam Comprehensive Basin Study, La., Ark., 

Okla. , and Tex. 

A4 Sabine River and Tributaries Comprehensive Basin Study, Texas 

and Louisiana 

Al Wallace Lake 

D4 West Bank of Mississippi River Vicinity of New Orleans 



Flood Plain Information Reports Completed or Underway 



(97) 



Lower Red River (95) 

Mississippi River, Cairo, I llinois, 

to Baton Rouge (96) 
Mississippi River Channel Improvement 

a. Bank Stabilization Works 

b. Dikes and Dredging 
Mississippi River Levees (98) 

Tensas Basin, Red River Backwater Area (100) 
a. Tensas-Cocodrie Area 
d. Larto Lake to Jonesville Area 

Old River (99) 

a. Bank Stabilization 



C3 


Baton Rouge No 


1 




C3 


Baton Rouge No 


2 




C3 


Baton Rouge No 


3 




C3 


Baton Rouge No 


4 




C3 


Baton Rouge No 


5 




E3 


Bogalusa 






B4 


Church Point 






D3 


Covington 






B« 


Crowley 






A ', 


DeQuincy 






C4 


Franklin 






1)4 


Gonzales 






C4 


Lafayette 






Bl 


Monroe 






3 5 


Oakdale 






CJ 


Rayville 






C4 


Scott & Lafayette 


Parish 


A! 


Shreveport No. 


1 




Al 


Shreveport No. 


2 




Al 


Shreveport No. 


3 




E4 


Slidell 






Bl 


West Monroe 






Cl 


Vinnsboro 







FLOOD CONTROL, MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES 
FEATURES OF PROJECT 






Morganza Floodway (88) 

f. Additional Drainage Facilities 

Upper Pointe Coupee Loop 

Area, La. 
Tensas Basin, Red River Backwater Area (100) 

a. Tensas-Cocodrie Area 

b. Sicily Island Area 

c. South of Red River Area 

d. Larto Lake to Jonesville 

Area 

e. Harrisburg to Little River 
Teche-Vermilion Basins (101) 
Tensas Basin, Boeuf and Tensas 

Rivers, etc. Ark. and La. (94) 



Flood Hazard Information Reports Completed or Underway 



Al Bayou Benoit 

Al Bickham Bayou 

Bl Black Bayou 

Al Brush Bayou 

C2 Concordia Parish 

Bl Port of Lake Providence 

Al Sand Beach Bayou 



Flood Insurance Studies Completed or Underway 



Reservoir 



Control Structure 



Authorized channel complete 
Waterway Channel complete under previous 

project and incomplete under existing project 

Channel Improvement 
Levee 



MHMMMMM 



HHHH IIIII M 



H i l l <ll 



Pumping Station 



B 









C4 


Abbeville 






D4 


Lutcher 


BS 


Alexandria 






D3 


Mandeville 


D4 


Ascension 






C4 


Marksville 


D4 


Ascension Parish 


(West Bank) 




C3 


Melville 


C4 


Baldwin 






D4 


Metairie 


C3 


Baton Rouge, East 


Baton Rouge, and 


Baker 


Bl 


Monroe 


C4 


Berwick 






C4 


Morgan City 


A 4 


Calcasieu Parish 


(Unincorporated areas) 


E4 


New Orleans (Inner Harbor Area) 


B2 


Caldwell Parish 






D4 


Orleans Parish Type 19 


C2 


Clavton 






Bl 


Ouachita Parish 


B3 


Colfax 






C4 


Patterson 


B2 


Columbia 






E5 


Plaquemines Parish 


C2 


Concordia Parish 






B2 


Rapides Parish 


A3 


DeQuincy 






E4 


Remainder of Orleans Parish 


C4 


Donaldsonville 






C2 


Ridgecrest 


C3 


East Baton Rouge 


Parish 




E4 


St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 1 


C2 


Ferriday 








Verret to Hopedale-Delacroix 


C4 


Franklin 






E4 


St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 2 


D4 


Gonzales 








Violet to Verret 


1)4 


Graraercy 






E4 


St. Bernard Parish, Area No. 3 


D4 


Gretna 








Orleans-St. Bernard Parish Line 


1)4 


Harahan 








to Violet 


D4 


Harvey-Gretna 






E4 


St. Bernard Parish Type 19 


D4 


Houma 






D4 


St. John the Baptist Parish 


C4 


Jeanerette 






C4 


St. Mary Parish 


D4 


Jefferson Parish 






C3 


Simmesport 


D4 


Jefferson Parish 


Type 19 




D4 


Sorrento 




Kenner 






C2 


Tensas Parish 




Lafayette 






DS 


lerrehonne Parish 


C4 


Lafayette Parish 






D4 


Thibodaux 


M 


Lafourche Parish 






C2 


Vidalla 


A4 


Lake Charles 






Bl 


West Monroe 


1)4 


Lockport 






D4 


Westwego 


D5 


Louisiana Gulf Coast 




Cl 


Winnsboro 



LEGEND 



o 

□ 



Navigation project 



Flood control project 



Features of flood control, Mississippi 
River and tributaries project 



Flood control 



© 



FPI 



FHI 



FIS 



Navigation and Flood 
control project 

Survey authorized 
or underway 

Flood Plain Information report 
completed or underway 

Flood Hazard Information report 
completed or underway 

Flood Insurance Study 
completed or underway 



o 

<CTT> Navigation 



PROJECTS IN LOUISIANA 



U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS 



SCALE OF MILES 



10 

fee 



o 
i— i i— I 



20 



30 



30 JUNE 1976 



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IVER 



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FLOODGATE ^^ 

(STATE OWNED) 



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LEGEND 



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DES GLAISES 
DIVERSION CHANNEL 

ATCHAFALAYA BASK 
'ANK STABILIZATIL 



ST 
rCHAKALAY, 
FLOODWAY- 




FUSE 
PLUG 
LEVEL 



OLD 



SimmespprtW//:!* 

1 



300, 



1 



COUPEE* 

Ida ai image 

tfUCTURE 1 

UPPER , 
GUIDE 
I LEVEL 



^OLD RIVER CONTROL 
!" STRUCTURES 

^{.Overbank and Low Sill) 

y j[ v MIS SISS IPPI 

louTsTana 



idfc^ANZA 
FUStQfewAY 



Levee 

Interstate Highway 

U. S. Highway 

State Highway 

Railway 

Structure 

Lock 

Gated Culvert 

Closure 

Dam 

Revetment 



1 1 1 1 1 i 



H 



r^ 



nnriT 



M 
CONfTRO 



RGANZA 

L STRUCTURE 



Not in Basin improvements 



MISSISSl 



Melville. 



HIGH LEVEL 
HIGHWAY CROSSING, 



BAYOU DARBONNL 
DBA IN AGE STRUCTURl 



3 

l^/WcKneeS 

m 



Morganza 

(ZZl HIGH 
LEVEL 
'CROSSING 1 



BAYOU COURTABLi 
DIVERSION CHANNELSfAND 
CONTROL STRUCT Ul 

COURTABLEAU DRAINAGE STRUCTURE 
AND CHANNELS 

BAYOU COURTABLEAU FRESHWATEk 
DIVERSION STRUCTURE AND CHANNEL, ^ 
(Authorized ) 



Krot£ 

Springs 




ERBURNE FRESHWATER 
DIVERSION STRUCTURE AND CI 
( Authorized) 



Plaquemine 



EAST / 
FRESHWATER 
DISTRIBUTION 

CHANNEL 



EAST ACCESS 
CHA NNEL -St. 




BATON 
ROUGE 




CLOSED I 
NAVIGATION 



ATCHAFALAYA 
BASIN 
FLOODWAY 



^ 



-» 



S/XM/LE LAKE 




City 




CALUMET 
FLOODGATES 

WAX LAKE, 

OUTLET 



& 



efle 



ATCHAFALAYA 
BAY 



GULF 




ATCHAFALAYA RIVER, BAYOUS CHENE 
BOEUF AND BLACK 

(Under construction) 



MEXICO 



ATCHAFALAYA BASIN IMPROVEMENTS 



1 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA 



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